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Suizhou Huagu Opera and Housekeeper

From: Date: 2017-05-25 Author: Li Xubin

Take root in Suizhou

Suizhou Huagu Opera was called ground flower drum, Huaguzi, Huagu Opera, etc. in the early days. It is a unique opera type in Suizhou. Its singing voice is divided into four major tunes: "Bare Tune", "Bao Tune", "Liangshan Tune" and "Color Tune". It mainly spreads in Suizhou and surrounding areas such as Zhongxiang, Jingshan, Zaoyang, Xiangfan, Yingshan, Tongbai County, Xinyang, Henan Province.

Suizhou Huagu Opera is like an old big tree in front of our house. It is rooted in Suizhou and grows in Suizhou. It contains the nutrition of Suizhou, bathes in the rain and dew of Suizhou, and wears the style of Suizhou. Deep and special feelings. According to common sense, there is no tree to eat in front of the door, and the Huagu Opera is also true for people. However, it is an indisputable fact that people sheltered by a large tree shade are more comfortable, more elegant, and more spiritual. It is important that people do not live just to eat.

Like the ancient ginkgo tree, Suizhou Flower Drum took root and sprouted in front of our door and grew stronger.

Around 1830, the Huagu Opera had four major sound modes and performance forms. Earlier in the early years, the Suizhou Flower Drum Opera was just a way for some folk artists to carry a small drum, walk around the door, sing along the door, and beg for a living. Play drums and gongs alone. Later, he developed to sing some short paragraphs, such as "Xiao Guan Deng", "Stand Flower Wall", "Gu Shi Gu Gu" and so on. With the change of the times, it gradually developed to three to five to many people singing, at that time the singing vocals were mostly "ground flower drum" mode. Because Suizhou Huagu opera artists often sing and perform in concerts with other opera artists such as Han opera, Henan Xunzi, and Yue tunes, Suizhou Huagu opera has widely absorbed a variety of vocals and singing methods, and through continuous processing and innovation of artists, continuous compatibility and processing in long-term singing career With the improvement and improvement, the different singing art styles of North and South have been integrated into the sound of Suizhou Huagu Opera, combined with the vocal and singing characteristics of Suizhou, forming the existing Huagu drama.

According to historical rumors, the first regular flower-drum opera class was established in Tianhekou, Suizhou. At that time, the entertainers used fire temple temple fairs to perform on stage. The opera class was called "strict training class", and the time was about the end of the Qing Dynasty. Since then, the Suizhou Huagu Opera has gradually flourished, and four major gate classes (also known as Shunfeng classes) have appeared in succession, including: Peng Ma in Luohe, Luo Yin Opera, Du Yongyi in Gaocheng (known as Du Dwarf), and Yu Xi Carpenter Opera. And a number of more influential professional artists such as Peng Ma, Luo Yin, Du Yongyi, Du Hongshan, Li Fuyuan appeared.

The performance art of Suizhou Huagu Opera is based on the elements of local life. He is good at performing some singing and doing small dramas. The absence of the "Emperor" is a unique feature of Suizhou Huagu drama. If it is indeed a plot need, it is only behind the scenes. The repertoire has evolved from a one-man sing, a small one and a clown, a small one, a small student, and a clown, and gradually developed into six pillars, namely: six students in a small student, a small Dan, a clown, two Dan, Tsing Yi, and Lao Sheng. .

The former "Acting Flower Dan and Tsing Yi" represents the artist Luo Yin. He has a good voice, a realistic and moving performance, and a moving expression. When he plays the heroine of "Loading Seam," he slams the tailor, he does his work well. "The feet are stable, the eyesight is accurate, The whipping sounded, and the body didn't hurt "(the victim). At that time, two words spread smoothly: "I watched Luo Yinxi, and I didn't hold my breath when I went home." The representative Nie Taijin played Chen in the drama "Blood Undershirt". When performing a bite of the bowl, the bowl was not damaged, the feelings were sincere and the skills were superb. Representative Li Fuyuan, a fifteen-year-old, studied at the school and performed on stage after six months. At the age of 17, he performed in places such as Baliji and Wangzhuang, Tongbai County, Henan Province, and the audience became famous by squashing the wall of the theater. In terms of singing, he summed up the singing experience of twenty words: stable pitch, clear and clear singing, quick and slow braking, holding up in a low voice, and responding with a high voice. ...

From 1935 to 1938, it was the heyday of the development of Suizhou Huagu Opera. Eighteen towns had Huagu Opera classes. There were nearly 30 professional and semi-professional Huagu Opera classes. There were more than 300 singing artists. When Japan invaded China in 1939, Forced to dissolve, performances gradually declined. Later, Liu Shuting in Ta'er Bay and Yu Chenggong in Gaocheng organized diaspora artists to set up a "double team". Due to the turbulence of the current situation, the performance stopped.

In January 1945, the "Double Class" was accepted by the New Fourth Army and Five Divisions when performing in Yingshanjiehe. It was affiliated to the Yingbei Brigade and formed the Army Art Troupe. It was later incorporated into the 15th Brigade, mainly for singing flower drums. Six months later, the fifteenth brigade went north to fight against Japan, and the artists were dismissed and returned home due to family pressure. In 1947, Xia Bangjie, the captain of the Fifth Squadron of the KMT with the County Security Brigade, organized a group of scattered artists to establish a "concentric theater company", which was later changed to "Social Theater Company".

Like Suizhou's ginkgo trees, Suizhou flower drums blossom and bear fruit in Suizhou. Suizhou's geographical location and climate determine its cultural quality and quality. Suizhou is located at the intersection of North and South, is the intersection of Central Plains culture and Chu culture. Suizhou Huagu Opera was born here, and because of the regional factors, it is a collection of North and South culture. It has both the high and rough of northern culture, and the euphemism of southern culture. .

1 个、业余剧团 4 个,演出剧目有 200 多本,常演剧目有 100 多本,其中《打裁缝》、《雪梅观画》、《血汗衫》等在随州地区及相邻县市颇具影响。 After the liberation, one professional theater company and four amateur theater companies were set up in the county at the time. There were more than 200 repertoires and more than 100 repertoires , including "Tailor", "View of Xuemei" and "Sweatshirt". Waiting in the Suizhou area and neighboring counties and cities have considerable influence. 年春,随县花鼓剧团正式成立,被正式命名为随县花鼓戏,随县人民委员会有关领导到场祝贺并赠言:“多演戏,演好戏,把戏演好。” In the spring of 1956 , the Suixian Huagu Opera Troupe was formally established and officially named Suixian Huagu Opera. The relevant leaders of the Suixian People's Committee came to congratulate and gave a speech: "Many acting, good acting, good acting."

Yin and Suizhou

The homes upon which humanity depends must not lack green trees. Green trees filled the earth with vitality. Trees are the green lungs and waste processing plants of nature. It absorbs carbon dioxide, emits oxygen, nourishes the land, and regulates the climate. It is the spiritual source of the world and humanity. In the hearts of Suizhou people, the trees of the house have been sheltered from the wind and rain, shaded from summer heat, shade and descendants' relics since ancient times. A home is more beautiful because of the green trees.

The same is true of Suizhou Huagu Opera. She makes Suizhou full of vitality and makes people's lives more beautiful and beautiful. The aesthetic enlightenment of art is the best way for people to be influenced and infected by truth, kindness, and beauty through art appreciation activities. She can inspire thoughts, give role models, raise awareness, and in the subtle way, people's thoughts, feelings, ideals, and pursuits have undergone profound changes. The general improvement of people's outlook on life and world can bring about social civilization and progress. This is the positive energy advocated today. Suizhou Huagu Opera has been releasing positive energy for generations, like the oxygen released by green trees. It releases mental oxygen.

The elegant and beautiful music elements of Suizhou Huagu Opera are very inspiring. In Suizhou, there is a wide audience base. Other art forms have been integrated into the cultural life of Suizhou people. It has important historical and practical significance to improve the cultural taste of Suizhou, increase national pride, unite people's hearts, promote spiritual civilization and build a harmonious society. This is green shade. Its shade should also regulate the climate at the spiritual level.

Over the years, the performances of Suizhou Huagu Opera have been mainly created, adapted, and transplanted. The content has been mainly based on love dramas. Clothing suitcases follow the rules of Peking Opera, which are divided into three types: large suitcase, small suitcase, and helmet box. The accompaniment instruments are mainly big drums, with gongs, drums, cloud boards, suonas, and sheng, etc. The performance methods are rich and diverse, close to life, advancing with the times, and have strong regional characteristics. Opera music is the most active element in the integration of cultural exchanges. It can cultivate people's sentiments, improve people's cultivation, and make people's life processes and music beautiful. The Suizhou Huagu opera "Barbarian Tune" used to have about 217 traditional repertoires and about 50 (this) adaptation of modern repertoire, of which 135 "Barbarian Tune" (this) are mainly: "Red Plum", "Daqingguan", "Hate Little Feet", "Blue Ribbon", "Three Please Fan Lihua" and so on. There are 23 (original) tunes, and the repertoire includes: "Playing a Barbarian Ship", "Standing the Flower Wall", "Stop the Horse", "Live the Sheep", etc. There are 32 (original) "Liangshan Tune", mainly including: "Liu Hai cut off", "Down Yangzhou", "Daluhua", "Wu Guangdai New Year", "Birth of a Wife" and so on. There are 38 "color tones" (mainly): "Large View Lamp", "Selling Grocery", "Little Cow", "Catch the Blind Man", "Embroidery Incense Bag" and so on.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, especially in 1956, a professional Huagu Opera Troupe was established with the county. The repertoire performed was greatly enriched and the genre was further expanded. In 1961, the Flower Drum Troupe arranged "Wu San Bao You Chun". In 1962, the play was well received in Wuhan tour, and was recorded, broadcasted and broadcast by Wuhan Radio and TV Station. In 1964, the arranged "Gun Village Gong and Drum" participated in the province's literary performances and was rated as an excellent play. Creative repertoires such as "Return to the Exercise" won awards in the province and were received by the main leaders of the provincial party committee. At the same time, they also performed more than ten traditional plays such as "Just Road Touring the West Lake" and "Zhao Wu Niang Eating Bran", transplanted and staged "Qin Xianglian", "Borrow Matching", "Baolian Lamp", "Four Downs of Henan", " Dozens of excellent traditional plays such as Meng Lijun, and later transplanted and staged "Liu Jiemei", "Liu Hulan", "Red Coral", "Sanliwan", "Shuangfeiyan", "Save Her", "Sun in Heart", etc. More than 40 modern dramas; "Rainbow Flying" and "Iron Cow Flying" created and performed in 1975 and 1976 have participated in provincial and territorial performances.

After the reform and opening up, "Cuiping Selling Pigs" created and performed by the Suizhou Flower Drum Troupe participated in the province's literary and art performances, and won the second prize of provincial creation and performance. In 1984, the county troupe was renamed Suizhou Flower Drum Opera. He wrote and edited more than ten large and small plays such as "Tomb Flower Soul" and "Dapeng Song". Among them, "Dapeng Song" has successively participated in provincial and territorial literary performances, won seven awards in Xiangfan for creation, performance, director, beauty, makeup, music, and performance, and won two provincial gold medals, three silver medals, and special awards from the People's Government of Suizhou City. Two, in the fall of 1986, made by the Central News Film Studio into opera films for public release.

Suizhou Huagu has a strong local color and unique artistic style. It is a more unique genre in various Huagu operas. It has been compiled into the "Chinese Dictionary of Chinese Opera and Music Arts" as a local drama and included in the "Chinese Literature and Art Yearbook". The Suizhou Huagu Opera is a "one play and one troupe" (that is, there is only one troupe in a genre), and it is known as "The First Troupe in the World-Suizhou Huagu Opera Troupe." All the repertoires performed in the Huagu Opera over 170 years have carried forward the morals of righteousness, praised the true, the good and the beautiful, praised the loyalty, and heroic patriotism.

People of the previous age still remember that before the 1960s, Suizhou folk theaters and theaters were everywhere. As long as there were hundreds of people in small market towns, there was no theater. People's love for flower drum drama has reached its extreme. Wan Baoying, a 76-year-old artist, is the inheritor of the Suizhou Huagu Opera intangible culture. Her daughter said she: When my mother is really going to die, if I drive the performance car to tell him to sing a Huagu Opera again, I will guarantee that she will return immediately.

Mother-in-law Zhang, who is nearly seventy years old, is a flower-drum play enthusiast. When she was young, to watch a Suizhou flower drum, she walked over a dozen kilometers over the mountains. Her feet got blood bubbles, and her thorns broke her pants. As soon as the gong started, all the hardships and hardships disappeared. Uncle Wu, 60, said: When I was a kid, I remember that when the county troupe performed in the village, the audience was very enthusiastic. In the evening, they had to grab seats in the afternoon.

When someone watched the flower drum the night before, he remembered a nice tune. When he plowed the field the next day, he would sing that sentence. A passer-by felt good and simply sat on the field to appreciate it. After listening to it for a long time, he couldn't hear the next sentence. Anxiously asked: "Brother, why do you only have this sentence?" Suizhou people used to call the two cows who had been ploughed together a puppet, and the farmer mistakenly thought he was asking the two cows who ploughed the field, and replied, "Brother ( Where there is a mule (what), with a mule (female) cow in the old watch room, there is a mule (two animals that can pull a plough as a mule). "The listener said:" I said Your song. "Gengfu would even pretend:" Ah! My aunt (the aunt and the song are similar in Suizhou dialect), she lives in Nanshan. "

In fact, the Huagu Opera is the spiritual companion of the Suizhou people. In the era of ignorance and heavy life, countless charred creatures lived through the long and difficult life day by day based on this poor fun and spiritual sustenance.

Test of life and death

Since it is a tree, it is inevitable to withstand storms, lightning, natural disasters, man-made disasters, floods and droughts. The same is true of Suizhou Huagu Opera. Nowadays, it is also a flood disaster caused by drought.

In a big way, the predicament of drama is caused by the climate. The decline of local operas is a common phenomenon across the country, and may be an inevitable trend. As more and more forms of entertainment have become available, drama has become less attractive to young people. Since the special reform and opening up, in the process of urbanization, both urban and rural areas have undergone drastic changes during the transition of the market economy, and the traditional lifestyle of rural society has gradually disintegrated. The original public cultural facilities such as theaters, theaters, and theaters have become victims. A large number of performance venues that have been built over the years have been demolished and converted into commercial real estate. Fortunately, the ones that remain are also difficult to operate because of years of disrepair. At the same time, the youth groups who entered the town have successively turned to modern media such as movies, television, radio, and the Internet. As a result, the audience for traditional opera has continued to shrink, and their living space has been severely squeezed. This is an important cause of the crisis of flower drum drama.

The place and audience of opera art are declining, the soil of art has been severely barren, and the situation of groups and artists engaged in opera art is extremely difficult. They cannot afford a certain cost to train their audience, which makes opera art face survival and death. The test is very severe. At this time, if the art of opera is judged by the criteria of "the crowd likes it, dislikes it, or does not welcome it", this art cannot continue. For so many years, they have been focusing on economic construction, and officials often judge the local culture by people's "likes or dislikes".

Since the 1990s, Suizhou Flower and Drum Troupe, which has gathered a large number of outstanding opera performers, has become increasingly difficult to survive and is in trouble due to various reasons. In order to continue planting trees in Suizhou Huagu Opera, the Huagu Opera Troupe restructured and restructured in 2012, and established "Suizhou Tianyun Culture Media Co., Ltd.". Through the reform of the cultural system, the employees of the Huagu Opera Company have benefited widely, and the backbone of the arts has regained their posts. The art of the Huagu opera has been inherited and carried forward.

Although the once brilliant Suizhou Huagu Opera was rated as the second batch of "National Intangible Cultural Heritage" in 2008, Suizhou Huagu Opera still faces the challenge of healthy development.

The age of the cast members and the severe aging of the performance equipment, and no one succeeded, are the bottlenecks currently restricting the Suizhou Huagu Opera. At present, the average age of theater performers is over 50 years old, and the age of Fenghua Zhengmao, who stands on the stage, is a thing of the past. It is imperative to train new talents to make the successor of the theater, but this system project also needs policy and funding support. The troupe's lighting, sound and other performance equipment were purchased more than 10 years ago. The performance venue has long been repurposed, and a large amount of investment is required to restore the performance of the theater. Today, the theater has 39 performers. With regard to wages, it earns more than 1.2 million yuan each year. Art production also requires a large amount of investment. The "normal business expenses" originally allocated by the local finance to the transfer hospitals have been Cancellation, it is basically difficult for government departments to get in place through "purchase services", "project subsidies", "substituting awards", and "directed funding". So the theater has always been financially difficult.

The vacancy of folk performance venues also restricts the healthy development of Suizhou Huagu Opera. There are no theaters and no performance agents in all towns and villages, and ticket performances cannot be realized at all. The development of commercial performances is just empty talk. In addition, the original Huagu Opera Troupe was affiliated to Zengdu District of Suizhou City, and the affiliation remained unchanged after the restructuring. District (Zengdu District) and county (Suixian) two systems, the performance range is only 4 urban areas and 6 townships, enter Suixian, Guangshui City performances are subject to administrative divisions.

On the one hand, the Huagu Opera Troupe cannot see the market and the audience, and on the other hand, the cultural life of the grassroots is seriously lacking. These two divergent phenomena coexist, which is alarming. In this regard, He Jingguo, the legal person of Suizhou Tianyun Culture Media Co., Ltd., has a heavy mental and spiritual burden. He has been investing money in the theater for the past few years. He is worried that his personal strength is too weak. He is worried that the Suizhou Huagu Opera is the accumulation of artistic creation over the centuries. It is a 'national treasure'-level intangible cultural heritage. If I lose it in my hands, I am not only sorry. The problem of ancestors, the problem of being scolded by future generations, the problem of crimes against the party and government and 2.5 million people in Suizhou.

Let Wangjiashu evergreen

The Suizhou Huagu Opera is like a vigorous family tree related to the prosperity of the home. Since it is a tree, it is inevitable to withstand storms, lightning, natural disasters, man-made disasters, floods, droughts, and insects. Therefore, housekeeping trees cannot be separated from sunlight and rain, and they need soil, fertilizer, water, and pipes. Suizhou folks pay attention to "trees are flourishing and families are prosperous and trees are failing." Now we should treat Suizhou flower drums to the same level as housekeepers.

Suizhou Huagu Opera is a unique and wonderful work in the art of Chinese opera. Protecting and developing Suizhou Huagu Opera has great historical value for inheriting Suizhou culture, promoting local operas, and studying Suizhou history, culture, folk customs, and customs. So if Suizhou's "housekeeper tree" fell, it would be incompetent and unfilial! Can't fall!

The state-level intangible cultural heritage has a policy of “mainly protection, rescue first, reasonable utilization, inheritance and development”, and do a good job in the protection and management of intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, the government is paying more and more attention to traditional culture. The idea of tilting opera performances to the grass-roots areas is very clear. Many preferential policies have been formulated. Many public cultural activities to "send drama to the countryside" have been organized. These can only be regarded as sunshine. The Suizhou Flower Drum was rated as a "non-heritage" type of opera, and under the umbrella of "inheritance", the local government issued a good policy and provided some support funds. He spent a lot of money and spent a lot of effort to keep the theater company. , Preserved the kind of play, these can only be considered as rain at most. There is also an urgent need for soil, fertilizer, water, and pipes. So everyone should start working together to raise soil, fertilize and water the "housekeeper tree". Someone sees, someone loves, and some people heat to enter a virtuous circle. This is the soil.

The artistic charm of opera needs to be truly understood. Without understanding opera, it is difficult to love opera. Therefore, it is imperative that the local opera functions of Suizhou Huagu Opera be valued and brought into play, and the government provide public cultural services be adjusted, enriched, and improved. In addition to policy support for the sun, we must also strive to rebuild the ecology and environment suitable for the sustainable development of Suizhou Huagu Opera, focusing on soil, fertilizer, and water support. Cultivate Suizhou people's ability to understand and enjoy the Huagu Opera. In addition to policy support, the solution is to improve the quality of the cast, improve the supporting facilities, select the production of the play, and train new talents and fans.

To keep the comedy features of the Huagu Opera. There is a saying in the folk of Suizhou that “the flower drums play waves down”. The so-called “waves” are coquettish, charming, funny, and funny. They are similar to the two people in Northeast China. It is because of their endless jokes that people love to see them. They are serious and serious. There are too many dramas, but they are not like flower drums, so you need to work hard on the jokes.

Organize the repertoire to prepare home-cooked dishes that can be obtained at any time, and tap for regional specialties. Do n’t chase after the situation and get tired of the task. You can borrow many traditional repertoires and traditional passages, such as the festive "Liu Hai Cho Yuan", "Grand Viewing Lamp", anti-corruption drama with Baogong, Hairui's Drama; the Army Day, Xue Family Drama, Yang Family Drama, etc. It is necessary to maintain a few famous operas and representative repertoires that are good at it all the year round, and to let the masses know the fine-tune sings to spread among the folk.

We must make great efforts to launch our own famous dramas, famous artists and famous segments, and focus on how to launch. For example, "the famous dramas on the stage, on television, on the Internet, and a certain amount of human, material and financial resources to vigorously promote the famous drum drum dramas, not only to promote the plot, but also to promote actors, directors and other artists, to establish a biography for the artist, to spread the name . Cultivate the public's sense of respect for the artist, cultivate the sense of honor and pride belonging to the Huagu Opera. At the same time that many measures are introduced to launch the Huagu Opera star, it is also necessary to train celebrities and fans to make the Huagu Opera popular with people.

In addition to working hard on the stage, work hard on the stage. The effort outside the stage is mainly to cultivate people's interest and consciousness of hobby and drum play. Through organizing appraisals, singing competitions, opera evenings, asking audiences to perform on stage, awards for quizzes, quizzes of actor and audience, interaction between actors and spectators, friendship between actor and spectators, visits to teachers, seminars and other activities, popularize the knowledge of hukou opera, cultivate public interest, and let the audience From understanding to love, from little to more. Children are the future of mankind, and also the hope of some successors to flower drum dramas. Popularization of flower drum dramas must start with dolls, and through the opening of a drama school, the school enters school activities to cultivate newcomers, and cultivate theater fans. There is also a need to talk about the "flower drum party" (screenwriters, critics, planners). At that time, Mr. Mei Lanfang, the master of Peking opera, came to his Peking Opera dream with the help of a good group of "Mei Dang". If Suizhou had a group of "Hua Drum parties" who talked well about Huagu opera, I believe that Suizhou Huagu Opera "see "Home tree" will always be evergreen.

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Suizhou Huagu Opera and Housekeeper

2017-05-25 08-58-57

Take root in Suizhou

Suizhou Huagu Opera was called ground flower drum, Huaguzi, Huagu Opera, etc. in the early days. It is a unique opera type in Suizhou. It has been reported that it has a history of more than 170 years. Its singing voice is divided into four major tunes: "Bare Tune", "Bao Tune", "Liangshan Tune" and "Color Tune". It mainly spreads in Suizhou and surrounding areas such as Zhongxiang, Jingshan, Zaoyang, Xiangfan, Yingshan, Tongbai County, Xinyang, Henan Province.

Suizhou Huagu Opera is like an old big tree in front of our house. It is rooted in Suizhou, grows in Suizhou, contains the nutrition of Suizhou, bathes in the rain and dew of Suizhou, and wears the style of Suizhou. It is born with the owner of Suizhou. Deep and special feelings. According to common sense, there is no tree to eat in front of the door, and the Huagu Opera is also true for people. However, it is an indisputable fact that people sheltered by a large tree shade are more comfortable, more elegant, and more spiritual. It is important that people do not live just to eat.

Like the ancient ginkgo tree, Suizhou Flower Drum took root and sprouted in front of our door and grew stronger.

Around 1830, the Huagu Opera had four major sound modes and performance forms. Earlier in the early years, the Suizhou Flower Drum Opera was just a way for some folk artists to carry a small drum, walk around the door, sing along the door, and beg for a living. Play drums and gongs alone. Later, he developed to sing some short paragraphs, such as "Xiao Guan Deng", "Stand Flower Wall", "Gu Shi Gu Gu" and so on. With the change of the times, it gradually developed to three to five to many people singing, at that time the singing vocals were mostly "ground flower drum" mode. Because Suizhou Huagu opera artists often sing and perform in concerts with other opera artists such as Han opera, Henan Xunzi, and Yue tunes, Suizhou Huagu opera has widely absorbed a variety of vocals and singing methods, and through continuous processing and innovation of artists, continuous compatibility and processing in long-term singing career With the improvement and improvement, the different singing art styles of North and South have been integrated into the sound of Suizhou Huagu Opera, combined with the vocal and singing characteristics of Suizhou, forming the existing Huagu drama.

According to historical rumors, the first regular flower-drum opera class was established in Tianhekou, Suizhou. At that time, the entertainers used fire temple temple fairs to perform on stage. The opera class was called "strict training class", and the time was about the end of the Qing Dynasty. Since then, the Suizhou Huagu Opera has gradually flourished, and four major gate classes (also known as Shunfeng classes) have appeared in succession, including: Peng Ma in Luohe, Luo Yin Opera, Du Yongyi in Gaocheng (known as Du Dwarf), and Yu Xi Carpenter Opera. And a number of more influential professional artists such as Peng Ma, Luo Yin, Du Yongyi, Du Hongshan, Li Fuyuan appeared.

The performance art of Suizhou Huagu Opera is based on the elements of local life. He is good at performing some singing and doing small dramas. The absence of the "Emperor" is a unique feature of Suizhou Huagu drama. If it is indeed a plot need, it is only behind the scenes. The repertoire has evolved from a one-man sing, a small one and a clown, a small one, a small student, and a clown, and gradually developed into six pillars, namely: six students in a small student, a small Dan, a clown, two Dan, Tsing Yi, and Lao Sheng. .

The former "Acting Flower Dan and Tsing Yi" represents the artist Luo Yin. He has a good voice, a realistic and moving performance, and a moving expression. When he plays the heroine of "Loading Seam," he slams the tailor, he does his work well. "The feet are stable, the eyesight is accurate, The whipping sounded, and the body didn't hurt "(the victim). At that time, two words spread smoothly: "I watched Luo Yinxi, and I didn't hold my breath when I went home." The representative Nie Taijin played Chen in the drama "Blood Undershirt". When performing a bite of the bowl, the bowl was not damaged, the feelings were sincere and the skills were superb. Representative Li Fuyuan, a fifteen-year-old, studied at the school and performed on stage after six months. At the age of 17, he performed in places such as Baliji and Wangzhuang, Tongbai County, Henan Province, and the audience became famous by squashing the wall of the theater. In terms of singing, he summed up the singing experience of twenty words: stable pitch, clear and clear singing, quick and slow braking, holding up in a low voice, and responding with a high voice. ...

From 1935 to 1938, it was the heyday of the development of Suizhou Huagu Opera. Eighteen towns had Huagu Opera classes. There were nearly 30 professional and semi-professional Huagu Opera classes. There were more than 300 singing artists. When Japan invaded China in 1939, Forced to dissolve, performances gradually declined. Later, Liu Shuting in Ta'er Bay and Yu Chenggong in Gaocheng organized diaspora artists to set up a "double team". Due to the turbulence of the current situation, the performance stopped.

In January 1945, the "Double Class" was accepted by the New Fourth Army and Five Divisions when performing in Yingshanjiehe. It was affiliated to the Yingbei Brigade and formed the Army Art Troupe. It was later incorporated into the 15th Brigade, mainly for singing flower drums. Six months later, the fifteenth brigade went north to fight against Japan, and the artists were dismissed and returned home due to family pressure. In 1947, Xia Bangjie, the captain of the Fifth Squadron of the KMT with the County Security Brigade, organized a group of scattered artists to establish a "concentric theater company", which was later changed to "Social Theater Company".

Like Suizhou's ginkgo trees, Suizhou flower drums blossom and bear fruit in Suizhou. Suizhou's geographical location and climate determine its cultural quality and quality. Suizhou is located at the intersection of North and South, is the intersection of Central Plains culture and Chu culture. Suizhou Huagu Opera was born here, and because of the regional factors, it is a collection of North and South culture. It has both the high and rough of northern culture, and the euphemism of southern culture. .

1 个、业余剧团 4 个,演出剧目有 200 多本,常演剧目有 100 多本,其中《打裁缝》、《雪梅观画》、《血汗衫》等在随州地区及相邻县市颇具影响。 After the liberation, one professional theater company and four amateur theater companies were set up in the county at the time. There were more than 200 repertoires and more than 100 repertoires , including "Tailor", "View of Xuemei" and "Sweatshirt". Waiting in the Suizhou area and neighboring counties and cities have considerable influence. 年春,随县花鼓剧团正式成立,被正式命名为随县花鼓戏,随县人民委员会有关领导到场祝贺并赠言:“多演戏,演好戏,把戏演好。” In the spring of 1956 , the Suixian Huagu Opera Troupe was formally established and officially named Suixian Huagu Opera. The relevant leaders of the Suixian People's Committee came to congratulate and gave a speech: "Many acting, good acting, good acting."

Yin and Suizhou

The homes upon which humanity depends must not lack green trees. Green trees filled the earth with vitality. Trees are the green lungs and waste processing plants of nature. It absorbs carbon dioxide, emits oxygen, nourishes the land, and regulates the climate. It is the spiritual source of the world and humanity. In the hearts of Suizhou people, the trees of the house have been sheltered from the wind and rain, shaded from summer heat, shade and descendants' relics since ancient times. A home is more beautiful because of the green trees.

The same is true of Suizhou Huagu Opera. She makes Suizhou full of vitality and makes people's lives more beautiful and beautiful. The aesthetic enlightenment of art is the best way for people to be influenced and infected by truth, kindness, and beauty through art appreciation activities. She can inspire thoughts, give role models, raise awareness, and in the subtle way, people's thoughts, feelings, ideals, and pursuits have undergone profound changes. The general improvement of people's outlook on life and world can bring about social civilization and progress. This is the positive energy advocated today. Suizhou Huagu Opera has been releasing positive energy for generations, like the oxygen released by green trees. It releases mental oxygen.

The elegant and beautiful music elements of Suizhou Huagu Opera are very inspiring. In Suizhou, there is a wide audience base. Other art forms have been integrated into the cultural life of Suizhou people. It has important historical and practical significance to improve the cultural taste of Suizhou, increase national pride, unite people's hearts, promote spiritual civilization and build a harmonious society. This is green shade. Its shade should also regulate the climate at the spiritual level.

Over the years, the performances of Suizhou Huagu Opera have been mainly created, adapted, and transplanted. The content has been mainly based on love dramas. Clothing suitcases follow the rules of Peking Opera, which are divided into three types: large suitcase, small suitcase, and helmet box. The accompaniment instruments are mainly big drums, with gongs, drums, cloud boards, suonas, and sheng, etc. The performance methods are rich and diverse, close to life, advancing with the times, and have strong regional characteristics. Opera music is the most active element in the integration of cultural exchanges. It can cultivate people's sentiments, improve people's cultivation, and make people's life processes and music beautiful. The Suizhou Huagu opera "Barbarian Tune" used to have about 217 traditional repertoires and about 50 (this) adaptation of modern repertoire, of which 135 "Barbarian Tune" (this) are mainly: "Red Plum", "Daqingguan", "Hate Little Feet", "Blue Ribbon", "Three Please Fan Lihua" and so on. There are 23 (original) tunes, and the repertoire includes: "Playing a Barbarian Ship", "Standing the Flower Wall", "Stop the Horse", "Live the Sheep", etc. There are 32 (original) "Liangshan Tune", mainly including: "Liu Hai cut off", "Down Yangzhou", "Daluhua", "Wu Guangdai New Year", "Birth of a Wife" and so on. There are 38 "color tones" (mainly): "Large View Lamp", "Selling Grocery", "Little Cow", "Catch the Blind Man", "Embroidery Incense Bag" and so on.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, especially in 1956, a professional Huagu Opera Troupe was established with the county. The repertoire performed was greatly enriched and the genre was further expanded. In 1961, the Flower Drum Troupe arranged "Wu San Bao You Chun". In 1962, the play was well received in Wuhan tour, and was recorded, broadcasted and broadcast by Wuhan Radio and TV Station. In 1964, the arranged "Gun Village Gong and Drum" participated in the province's literary performances and was rated as an excellent play. Creative repertoires such as "Return to the Exercise" won awards in the province and were received by the main leaders of the provincial party committee. At the same time, they also performed more than ten traditional plays such as "Just Road Touring the West Lake" and "Zhao Wu Niang Eating Bran", transplanted and staged "Qin Xianglian", "Borrow Matching", "Baolian Lamp", "Four Downs of Henan", " Dozens of excellent traditional plays such as Meng Lijun, and later transplanted and staged "Liu Jiemei", "Liu Hulan", "Red Coral", "Sanliwan", "Shuangfeiyan", "Save Her", "Sun in Heart", etc. More than 40 modern dramas; "Rainbow Flying" and "Iron Cow Flying" created and performed in 1975 and 1976 have participated in provincial and territorial performances.

After the reform and opening up, "Cuiping Selling Pigs" created and performed by the Suizhou Flower Drum Troupe participated in the province's literary and art performances, and won the second prize of provincial creation and performance. In 1984, the county troupe was renamed Suizhou Flower Drum Opera. He wrote and edited more than ten large and small plays such as "Tomb Flower Soul" and "Dapeng Song". Among them, "Dapeng Song" has successively participated in provincial and territorial literary performances, won seven awards in Xiangfan for creation, performance, director, beauty, makeup, music, and performance, and won two provincial gold medals, three silver medals, and special awards from the People's Government of Suizhou City. Two, in the fall of 1986, made by the Central News Film Studio into opera films for public release.

Suizhou Huagu has a strong local color and unique artistic style. It is a more unique genre in various Huagu operas. It has been compiled into the "Chinese Dictionary of Chinese Opera and Music Arts" as a local drama and included in the "Chinese Literature and Art Yearbook". The Suizhou Huagu Opera is a "one play and one troupe" (that is, there is only one troupe in a genre), and it is known as "The First Troupe in the World-Suizhou Huagu Opera Troupe." All the repertoires performed in the Huagu Opera over 170 years have carried forward the morals of righteousness, praised the true, the good and the beautiful, praised the loyalty, and heroic patriotism.

People of the previous age still remember that before the 1960s, Suizhou folk theaters and theaters were everywhere. As long as there were hundreds of people in small market towns, there was no theater. People's love for flower drum drama has reached its extreme. Wan Baoying, a 76-year-old artist, is the inheritor of the Suizhou Huagu Opera intangible culture. Her daughter said she: When my mother is really going to die, if I drive the performance car to tell him to sing a Huagu Opera again, I will guarantee that she will return immediately.

Mother-in-law Zhang, who is nearly seventy years old, is a flower-drum play enthusiast. When she was young, to watch a Suizhou flower drum, she walked over a dozen kilometers over the mountains. Her feet got blood bubbles, and her thorns broke her pants. As soon as the gong started, all the hardships and hardships disappeared. Uncle Wu, 60, said: When I was a kid, I remember that when the county troupe performed in the village, the audience was very enthusiastic. In the evening, they had to grab seats in the afternoon.

When someone watched the flower drum the night before, he remembered a nice tune. When he plowed the field the next day, he would sing that sentence. A passer-by felt good and simply sat on the field to appreciate it. After listening to it for a long time, he couldn't hear the next sentence. Anxiously asked: "Brother, why do you only have this sentence?" Suizhou people used to call the two cows who had been ploughed together a puppet, and the farmer mistakenly thought he was asking the two cows who ploughed the field, and replied, "Brother ( Where there is a mule (what), with a mule (female) cow in the old watch room, there is a mule (two animals that can pull a plough as a mule). "The listener said:" I said Your song. "Gengfu would even pretend:" Ah! My aunt (the aunt and the song are similar in Suizhou dialect), she lives in Nanshan. "

In fact, the Huagu Opera is the spiritual companion of the Suizhou people. In the era of ignorance and heavy life, countless charred creatures lived through the long and difficult life day by day based on this poor fun and spiritual sustenance.

Test of life and death

Since it is a tree, it is inevitable to withstand storms, lightning, natural disasters, man-made disasters, floods and droughts. The same is true of Suizhou Huagu Opera. Nowadays, it is also a flood disaster caused by drought.

In a big way, the predicament of drama is caused by the climate. The decline of local operas is a common phenomenon across the country, and may be an inevitable trend. As more and more forms of entertainment have become available, drama has become less attractive to young people. Since the special reform and opening up, in the process of urbanization, both urban and rural areas have undergone drastic changes during the transition of the market economy, and the traditional lifestyle of rural society has gradually disintegrated. The original public cultural facilities such as theaters, theaters, and theaters have become victims. A large number of performance venues that have been built over the years have been demolished and converted into commercial real estate. Fortunately, the ones that remain are also difficult to operate because of years of disrepair. At the same time, the youth groups who entered the town have successively turned to modern media such as movies, television, radio, and the Internet. As a result, the audience for traditional opera has continued to shrink, and their living space has been severely squeezed. This is an important cause of the crisis of flower drum drama.

The place and audience of opera art are declining, the soil of art has been severely barren, and the situation of groups and artists engaged in opera art is extremely difficult. They cannot afford a certain cost to train their audience, which makes opera art face survival and death. The test is very severe. At this time, if the art of opera is judged by the criteria of "the crowd likes it, dislikes it, or does not welcome it", this art cannot continue. For so many years, they have been focusing on economic construction, and officials often judge the local culture by people's "likes or dislikes".

Since the 1990s, Suizhou Flower and Drum Troupe, which has gathered a large number of outstanding opera performers, has become increasingly difficult to survive and is in trouble due to various reasons. In order to continue planting trees in Suizhou Huagu Opera, the Huagu Opera Troupe restructured and restructured in 2012, and established "Suizhou Tianyun Culture Media Co., Ltd.". Through the reform of the cultural system, the employees of the Huagu Opera Company have benefited widely, and the backbone of the arts has regained their posts. The art of the Huagu opera has been inherited and carried forward.

Although the once brilliant Suizhou Huagu Opera was rated as the second batch of "National Intangible Cultural Heritage" in 2008, Suizhou Huagu Opera still faces the challenge of healthy development.

The age of the cast members and the severe aging of the performance equipment, and no one succeeded, are the bottlenecks currently restricting the Suizhou Huagu Opera. At present, the average age of theater performers is over 50 years old, and the age of Fenghua Zhengmao, who stands on the stage, is a thing of the past. It is imperative to train new talents to make the successor of the theater, but this system project also needs policy and funding support. The troupe's lighting, sound and other performance equipment were purchased more than 10 years ago. The performance venue has long been repurposed, and a large amount of investment is required to restore the performance of the theater. Today, the theater has 39 performers. With regard to wages, it earns more than 1.2 million yuan each year. Art production also requires a large amount of investment. The "normal business expenses" originally allocated by the local finance to the transfer hospitals have been Cancellation, it is basically difficult for government departments to get in place through "purchase services", "project subsidies", "substituting awards", and "directed funding". So the theater has always been financially difficult.

The vacancy of folk performance venues also restricts the healthy development of Suizhou Huagu Opera. There are no theaters and no performance agents in all towns and villages, and ticket performances cannot be realized at all. The development of commercial performances is just empty talk. In addition, the original Huagu Opera Troupe was affiliated to Zengdu District of Suizhou City, and the affiliation remained unchanged after the restructuring. District (Zengdu District) and county (Suixian) two systems, the performance range is only 4 urban areas and 6 townships, enter Suixian, Guangshui City performances are subject to administrative divisions.

On the one hand, the Huagu Opera Troupe cannot see the market and the audience, and on the other hand, the cultural life of the grassroots is seriously lacking. These two divergent phenomena coexist, which is alarming. In this regard, He Jingguo, the legal person of Suizhou Tianyun Culture Media Co., Ltd., has a heavy mental and spiritual burden. He has been investing money in the theater for the past few years. He is worried that his personal strength is too weak. He is worried that the Suizhou Huagu Opera is the accumulation of artistic creation over the centuries. It is a 'national treasure'-level intangible cultural heritage. If I lose it in my hands, I am not only sorry. The problem of ancestors, the problem of being scolded by future generations, the problem of crimes against the party and government and 2.5 million people in Suizhou.

Let Wangjiashu evergreen

The Suizhou Huagu Opera is like a vigorous family tree related to the prosperity of the home. Since it is a tree, it is inevitable to withstand storms, lightning, natural disasters, man-made disasters, floods, droughts, and insects. Therefore, housekeeping trees cannot be separated from sunlight and rain, and they need soil, fertilizer, water, and pipes. Suizhou folks pay attention to "trees are flourishing and families are prosperous and trees are failing." Now we should treat Suizhou flower drums to the same level as housekeepers.

Suizhou Huagu Opera is a unique and wonderful work in the art of Chinese opera. Protecting and developing Suizhou Huagu Opera has great historical value for inheriting Suizhou culture, promoting local operas, and studying Suizhou history, culture, folk customs, and customs. So if Suizhou's "housekeeper tree" fell, it would be incompetent and unfilial! Can't fall!

The state-level intangible cultural heritage has a policy of “mainly protection, rescue first, reasonable utilization, inheritance and development”, and do a good job in the protection and management of intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, the government is paying more and more attention to traditional culture. The idea of tilting opera performances to the grass-roots areas is very clear. Many preferential policies have been formulated. Many public cultural activities to "send drama to the countryside" have been organized. These can only be regarded as sunshine. The Suizhou Flower Drum was rated as a "non-heritage" type of opera, and under the umbrella of "inheritance", the local government issued a good policy and provided some support funds. He spent a lot of money and spent a lot of effort to keep the theater company. , Preserved the kind of play, these can only be considered as rain at most. There is also an urgent need for soil, fertilizer, water, and pipes. So everyone should start working together to raise soil, fertilize and water the "housekeeper tree". Someone sees, someone loves, and some people heat to enter a virtuous circle. This is the soil.

The artistic charm of opera needs to be truly understood. Without understanding opera, it is difficult to love opera. Therefore, it is imperative that the local opera functions of Suizhou Huagu Opera be valued and brought into play, and the government provide public cultural services be adjusted, enriched, and improved. In addition to policy support for the sun, we must also strive to rebuild the ecology and environment suitable for the sustainable development of Suizhou Huagu Opera, focusing on soil, fertilizer, and water support. Cultivate Suizhou people's ability to understand and enjoy the Huagu Opera. In addition to policy support, the solution is to improve the quality of the cast, improve the supporting facilities, select the production of the play, and train new talents and fans.

To keep the comedy features of the Huagu Opera. There is a saying in the folk of Suizhou that “the flower drums play waves down”. The so-called “waves” are coquettish, charming, funny, and funny. They are similar to the two people in Northeast China. It is because of their endless jokes that people love to see them. There are too many dramas, but they are not like flower drums, so you need to work hard on the jokes.

Organize the repertoire to prepare home-cooked dishes that can be obtained at any time, and tap for regional specialties. Do n’t chase after the situation and get tired of the task. You can borrow many traditional repertoires and traditional passages, such as the festive "Liu Hai Cho Yuan", "Grand Viewing Lamp", anti-corruption drama with Baogong, Hai Rui Drama; the Army Day, Xue Family Drama, Yang Family Drama, etc. It is necessary to maintain a few famous operas and representative repertoires that are good at it all the year round, and to let the masses know the fine-tune sings to spread among the folk.

We must make great efforts to launch our own famous dramas, famous artists and famous segments, and focus on how to launch. For example, "the famous dramas on the stage, on television, on the Internet, and a certain amount of human, material and financial resources to vigorously promote the famous drum drum dramas, not only to promote the plot, but also to promote actors, directors and other artists, to establish a biography for the artist, to spread the name . Cultivate the public's sense of respect for the artist, cultivate the sense of honor and pride belonging to the Huagu Opera. At the same time that many measures are introduced to launch the Huagu Opera star, it is also necessary to train celebrities and fans to make the Huagu Opera popular with people.

In addition to working hard on the stage, work hard on the stage. The effort outside the stage is mainly to cultivate people's interest and consciousness of hobby and drum play. Through organizing appraisals, singing competitions, opera evenings, asking audiences to perform on stage, awards for quizzes, quizzes of actor and audience, interaction between actors and spectators, friendship between actor and spectators, visits to teachers, seminars and other activities, popularize the knowledge of hukou opera, cultivate public interest, and let audience From understanding to love, from little to more. Children are the future of mankind, and also the hope of some successors to flower drum dramas. Popularization of flower drum dramas must start with dolls, and through the opening of a drama school, the school enters school activities to cultivate newcomers, and cultivate theater fans. There is also a need to talk about the "flower drum party" (screenwriters, critics, planners). At that time, Mr. Mei Lanfang, the master of Peking opera, came to his Peking Opera dream with the help of a good group of "Mei Dang". If Suizhou had a group of "Hua Drum parties" who talked well about Huagu opera, I believe that Suizhou Huagu Opera "see "Home tree" will always be evergreen.

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