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Presence and Transcendence: A Wonderful Presentation of the Regional Epic in Jianghan Plain——On Dado's Novel "The Age of Poverty"

Source: Hubei Writers Network Published: 2016-10-25 Author: LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

    [ ] ,以洋洋洒洒近 60 万言的篇幅,书写江汉平原的地域历史,体现出留存历史风云、为时代盖棺论定的建构雄心。 Dado's novel "The Age of Poverty" [ ] , with a length of nearly 600,000 words, writes the regional history of the Jianghan Plain, reflecting the construction ambition of preserving historical situation and determining the coffin for the era. 1964 1976 年的平原水乡历史。 With the narrative passion of the Yangtze River and the majestic momentum of the mountains and tsunami, the novel reproduces the history of the plain water town from 1964 to 1976 in a panoramic manner . The focus of the novel lies in the fourth team of Fengwan Brigade, Yanglin Commune, Jiangyang County, near the Sturgeon Lake on the Jianghan Plain. As an artistic fiction, it is easy to think of the birthplace of writer Dudu, Yanglinwei Commune, Yonghe, Poyang County. The four teams of the brigade have experienced the turbulent lake of Sturgeon Lake today. The protagonist Ying Yundong and Dado are of the same age. The living environment and growth experience are quite similar, so it is easier to get the "narrative sympathy" of the writer. Such time and space, such characters, seem to have determined the "memory", "realism" and "return home" style of the novel's narrative, standing in the already successful present, looking back at the past, once suffering the pain Ten years of time will often become hazy and dreamlike, with less pain, and even be regarded as a necessary step and a necessary price to the peak of success. Therefore, suffering aesthetics, forgetting humiliation, and recreating poetry will often become literary writings of similar themes. Common sentiment trends, but it ’s clear that Dudu ’s "Poverty Times" is not here. On the one hand, it is a book that feels very kind to read, because it is a fine-grained work depicting the regional history of the Jianghan Plain. He Fengqing's works; on the other hand, this is a painful book. The dual constraints of material deprivation and spiritual poverty during the Cultural Revolution made it impossible for people in the novel to move, and the relationships between the characters in the novel were mostly original. The natural relationship, being ugly with neighbors, is very ugly, there is no end to struggle, no dignity for survival, and it is indeed the world of the Jianghan Plain water village in the history of the Cultural Revolution. The true representation of the people. A strong sense of presence is a distinctive feature of Dudu's novels. He dares to face the suffering and expose the scars. The truth hidden in the depths of the country ’s history is exposed in the sun. At the same time, the rich Jianghan Plain ’s regional cultural customs are displayed and reproduced. To some extent, the cruelty of real history has been eliminated, and the tension space of narrative structure and emotional expression has been formed, thus achieving the aesthetic transcendence of historical presence.

I. Deep Life Accumulation

"Poverty Times" uses strict realist creative techniques to make great efforts in the background, objective environment, details of life, and expression of experience in the novel, and strives to most realistically restore the "material" sense of existence in the water and countryside of the Jianghan Plain during the Cultural Revolution. A solid and profound narrative foundation for the text of the novel.

The first is a narrative of grassroots social administrative organizations and their operations, frequent political movements, and important historical events during the Cultural Revolution. The novel begins with the release of relief funds by the Socialist Rural Education Task Force. Through the plot of Hu Wa, a member of the socialist rural education team, pulling a crossbow and playing a horizontal gun to deceive two yuan anise, it realistically reproduces the greed of the people in the "poverty era". And sad. The novel is based on time, including the "Four Qings" movement, the five types of molecular criticism conference, the Cultural Revolution, the poor association representatives to supervise the production team leader and team members, break the four olds, "three combinations", posters, "early request for the evening report", " Correction "," Rebels ", Quotations Songs, Model Plays, Artificial Earth Satellite" Dongfanghong No. 1 "Successful Launch," One Dozen Three Against ", Shortened Educational System, Big Series, Educated Youths Going to the Countryside, Treasure Island War, Lin Biao incident, Lin Linping Kong, Ping Shuiyu, Zhou Enlai's death, Tiananmen incident, Mao Zedong's death, etc., constitute the iconic nodes of the novel's narrative. The novel works are also closely intertwined with historical documents, People's Daily editorials, posters, folk pleadings , News broadcasts, political slickness, and other materials with distinctive characteristics of the era, further the fictional plot and the fate of the characters within the framework of the real historical process. This method of narrative I call "historical fidelity."

The second is the realistic writing of the world of experience. There is no doubt that Dadu has a profound accumulation of life knowledge. Among the twelve winters and summers involved in the novel, he carefully presented this life experience and human knowledge, describing it vividly and vividly. [ ] For example, the novel wrote that the Laosha cow (cow) had no milk after the baby was born. The production team paid for the fried dough soy milk and gave the laosha cow a mother (milk). On the farm, "In the crowd, Yundong's father Ying Yuxian and Liu Fusheng were busy nervously. They found a fork and tied it to two horns, so that one person stopped the bull's head. Ying Yuxian opened the bull's mouth with one hand and put the other with The churros were stuffed into the ox's mouth, and the churros were stuffed with soy milk. Several other people listened to the command and asked to take whatever they asked for. This scene is similar to the irrigated cattle medicine. The difference is that cattle medicine is very bitter, The cow refuses to drink, which makes it difficult to eat; and the churros and soy milk are cows willing to eat and drink, so it is not only stubborn, but also very cooperative. In this way, busy people will not be nervous and strenuous " [ ] . Using a fork to control a cow's head, and frittering soy milk, this kind of "knowledge of life" would not have been written so vividly without real life experience or without witnessing it. Another example is the novel about Ge Sheng fishing. "Ge Sheng is an old fish catcher. He knows where black fishes are hiding in the water. Black fishes generally like to create nests in dense water and grass. Sometimes the water is ventilated and the tail is swept away. , The water grass opened a nest by it. In hot weather, the black fish also likes to hide under the lotus leaf. If there are maggots jumping on the lotus leaf, most of them become the food in the mouth of the black fish. Some collapsed lotus leaves There was damage, or there was a big hole, it must be the mark left by the black fish. ”" Ge Sheng is in those sparse grasses and the edge of the collapsed lotus leaves. Here and there. This fishing method is called Baibaishuiwozi. This method is really effective. After a while, just listening to the sound of the water, Ge Sheng throws a bamboo pole in his hand, and a black fish is caught. This is a black fish with a long ruler. ] 文本中的“黑鱼”就是财鱼,“蚵蚂”即是青蛙,“咚白水窝子”的钓鱼技术等,无不带有鲜明的江汉平原水乡的地域特色,因为所叙是江汉平原水乡生活,小说文本中类似的用赶罾子、撒鱼网、下卡网、用鱼罩鱼等捕鱼的生动细节展示,所在多有,无不显示出达度富有深厚的生活经验积累和惊人的表现生活经验的叙述能力,这是现实主义小说的可贵品质。 [ ] The "black fish" in the text is the rich fish, the "trolling anteater" is the frog, and the "trenching white water nest" fishing techniques, etc., all have the distinctive regional characteristics of the Jianghan Plain water village, because the description is the Jianghan Plain Life in the water village, similar to the vivid details of fishing in the novel, such as catching crickets, spreading nets, lowering nets, and covering fish with fish, etc., there are many places, all of which show profound accumulation of profound life experience and amazing The narrative ability to express life experience is a valuable quality of realistic novels.

Second, deep emotional digging

Childhood life experience is of great significance to writers. The so-called hometown is not only a regional existence, but also an emotional existence. Middle-aged Darto traces back the entire process of the "Cultural Revolution" in writing, naturally using his childhood and adolescents' emotional storage, intertwined with the complex emotions of nostalgia for the hometown and absolute criticism. "I can't go back to my hometown", flowers bloom and thank, Yunjuanyunshu, Hutian is still there, people are wrong, and the "hometown" will flow with the passing of water. Once you leave, you can no longer arrive.

The novel is based on the deep emotional excavation based on objective authenticity. It mainly revolves around people, things, and things in the hometown. The emotional dimension is intertwined with love and hate. The emotional temperature is symbiosis of cold and heat. The writing position that pursues authenticity often tends to The original narrative of "zero-degree writing" in the novel's narrative, and the seemingly calm and calm narrative of the narrative, underlies the surging writing passion.

Children in rural areas are often blamed. Compared to children in cities, they are beaten much more often, and many times they are beaten for no reason at all. There is an old saying in the countryside, "If you hit a child on a rainy day, you will be idle when you are idle." Beating a child has become an important recreation and leisure activity in a village with a pale cultural life. Outsiders feel strange, but people in the bureau take it for granted. In childhood, Ying Yundong was often beaten. After being beaten, he was hungry and did not eat. The way to transfer his emotions was to stare at the ants on the ground. Ying Yundong's younger brother Yun Xi wants to play with his schoolbag, and he is reluctant to give it, "The next day at noon, Yun Dong and his playmates dispersed and went home for dinner. I didn't expect a guy was waiting for him. He didn't know what he did wrong. What happened. The father gave him fists and ears without any discrimination. Yun Dong lay on the ground and wept loudly, and refused to get up on the ground. He had n’t been hit hard by his father before, but as long as his mother was in front of him She always came out to turn. But not only did the mother not turn, but also counted him with jealousy. He knew that this guy had lost yesterday. But was it his fault yesterday? It was his schoolbag. Why did Yunxi take it away? He felt very aggrieved. Until the family had finished eating, he was still crying on the ground while watching the ants foraging. " ] 哥哥应该让弟弟,大孩子应该让小孩子,这是乡下人的“礼行”,是道德判断;而不分对错是非,争执的起因究竟如何,事实判断在乡下人的家庭冲突中永远缺席。 [ ] The elder brother should let the younger brother, the older child should let the younger child. This is the "rule" of the rural people, and it is a moral judgment; regardless of the right and wrong, the cause of the dispute, the facts judge the family conflict in the rural people. China will always be absent. Depicting the experience and feelings of beatings so vividly should not be a fiction of a writer. ? 从心理学角度来看,有过受虐经历的孩子长大以后,容易形成对强权的崇拜,在潜意识深处他希望成为那个施虐的人,或者将曾经的受虐屈辱转化为对强权的反抗,他会以为弱势群体出头抗争的方式反对强权。 Children in the Jianghan Plain village, especially the eldest son in the family, who has not had a leisurely childhood who was beaten for a long time without a video ? From a psychological perspective, it is easy for children who have experienced abuse to grow up. Forming a worship of power, deep in the subconscious, he hopes to be the person who abuses it, or transforms the former humiliation and humiliation into resistance to power, and he will oppose power in a way that the disadvantaged groups come forward to fight. This closeness and resistance to the power is the psychological motivation that determines Ying Dong's future life and fate. During the Cultural Revolution, he almost got caught up in the hat of "anti-Party and anti-socialism" for writing articles on opposing pedigree; he continued to read and read newspapers and wrote diligently, with the aim of one day getting ahead. The inner psychological driving force is still worship of power. His love and hatred for his father, often the hatred that grows from beatings for no reason, is often diluted by the warm affection that grows from the difficult struggle of the father and son working together to fish and sell fish and work together. [ ] 小说《贫困时代》也在此种莫名悲愤与屈辱的气氛中划上句号,满蕴着爱与恨、义愤与悲痛的情感张力。 Until his father was falsely accused of being a member of the theft gang, and was killed in the "Militia Command Study Class" of the production brigade, Ying Yundong shed blood in his heart while raising an unknown ghost fire, and secretly vowed: How did Qing ’s father die! He must wash his father ’s body for the wronged father! He must pay his blood debts to the murderers of his father! ” [ ] The novel“ Era of Poverty ”also draws in this atmosphere of inexplicable grief and humiliation The last period is full of emotional tensions of love and hate, righteous anger and grief.

As for the piece of homeland underneath, Ying should be strict, and both father and son should be entangled in love and hatred, full of hesitation and contradiction. The rigid political and economic system of the Cultural Revolution era has imposed many restrictions and restrictions on people. People living in poverty-stricken land with poor properties and inactive homes should try to move many times to move to a place where they can live freely, without restrictions, and have rich products. Place to go, the result is always disillusioned. At the same time, the barren land on this side, after all, feeds the people in their hometown. They tried everything to survive. Eventually, Yinggeyan was to feed the birds and fish by sneaking fish and catching birds. One family member. Therefore, they are very grateful for this land. Ying Yundong's best friends, such as Yu Liang, Mu Sheng, Niu Wa, Shi Shi, and Ge Long, once gave him the most innocent friendship in childhood and adolescence. He secretly read the books and listened to stories in the Cultural Revolution era from his hometown. Reading a new chapter that opened up his vision of life was unthinkable and unforgettable.

Deep in love is speechless. Regarding the hometown, the dilemma of love and hate, of course, the most ideal method is to suspend morality without judgment, and just make a "zero-degree narrative" and state it. Therefore, we have read the most simple and true lover in the history of modern literature since Shen Congwen and Cao Yu. A migrant worker from the Shahu regiment was injured by a shovel because he watched others gambling. Ying Yundong, Yu Liang, Mu Sheng, and Niuwa went to see him. When they saw the "head wrapped with a health bandage, only two were exposed. "Patients with eyeballs", "the crowd can't help but laugh", the man complained:

"It's not very painful and hurt so much. I heard a blast at the time, and even my ears were shocked. I knew in my heart that it was finished with a shovel. What a good heart. From me The forehead has been cut to the bone of the nose, and all of it has been cut open. I know that even my eyes are separated, and I dare not pinch my head, it hurts, my speech hurts, and my nose is blown ... "

Several of them finally couldn't help but laugh again. ] [ ]

“将 屠夫的凶残 , 使大家 化为一笑, 收场大吉”,但这又确实是江汉平原水乡人们的真实心态。 This is a typical "watcher" mentality, which is the inferior root of Lu Xun's national aggravation- "to turn the butcher's brutality into a smile and end it", but it is indeed the true mentality of the people in the water village of Jianghan Plain. It wasn't a matter of personal concern, but it was supposed to be sympathetic to the innocent injured, but it was turned into talks for rural people for appreciation and entertainment. In the "Water Margin" chapter, after the chapter "Fake Li Zhi cuts his way to rob a single person, the black whirlwind Yiling kills the four tigers", he recounts that Li Zhi returned to Liangshanpo, telling that he killed fake Li Zhi along the way, and carried his old mother to Yiling, and was eaten by the tiger. In the process of killing the Four Tigers with his own sword, "everyone laughs". Where can the heroes who are acting on the sky and "seeing their brothers like their brothers and brothers" have any humanistic feelings? We really want to thank this "cold-blooded" text, because it writes the coldness of the world and the coldness of the world.

To show the authenticity and barbarity of civil society to the greatest extent is the pursuit of the degree of writing by Dudu. In the rural emotional world, the indifferent appreciation is often intertwined with the tender care. In the novel, the mother-child relationship between Chen Anying and Ying Yundong, the friendship between Ying Yundong and his friends, the relationship between the neighbors and family members, and so on, all have a warm chapter. Among them, the most authentic emotional excavation and wonderful presentation of the inner world of the water villagers is the narrative of the smoking woman. The smoker who was said to be from Hankou previously lived with Xia Zhiguang from the three teams. Xia Zhiguang used to have a wife, but his wife took his son away with others, so he lived with the smoker, but because of the smoke The wife likes smoking, drinking, and eating fish. He feels overwhelmed, so he asks Ying Geyan ’s father and widower Ying Yuxian to be a matchmaker. After a while, the smoking wife marries, and when she broke into the cave, she met Ying Yuxian. Live together. Unexpectedly, three months later, Ying Geyan's family couldn't afford the expense of the smoking woman. The smoking woman had to "where to go" and went back to Xia Zhiguang of the three teams. [ ] ,在生活格外贫困的条件下,应格严还经常打鱼换钱购买整条的新华香烟送给她,以致于陈安颖很不满意。 It should be said that Ying, who is the top pillar of the family, is still very good for the father's continuation string and his stepdaughter. "At that time, ten dollars was considered a fortune. Swimming smoke is called high-dried tobacco, and one cigarette is worth two. Block nine, most people ca n’t see it. One Xinhua cigarette is two and four, and most people ca n’t afford it. The most common is chicken gong, one pack of one corner and five, which is not affordable for everyone. ” [ ] , Under the circumstances of extremely poor living, Ying Geyan also often fished for money to buy the whole Xinhua cigarette and gave it to her, so that Chen Anying was not satisfied. The smoking woman "changed hands" between the two men, and the two sides did not feel that there was anything wrong, and the reason why the old man was "taken over" was because Xia Zhiguang saved his grandson Ying Yundong's life, and felt that the other side was kind. I promised to "take over" myself. The plainness and honesty of folk emotions can be seen here.

Third, strong regional colors

The novel's theme clues are clear, the narrative is smooth, fascinating, the random narratives are set freely, and the regional style is intentionally embellished. It is appropriately and appropriately displayed, which adds a lot to the novel. The wonderful plot of Hu Walai's account at the beginning of the novel evokes the reader's desire to read. The novel narrates the regional history of the Jianghan Plain during the Cultural Revolution. It describes the growth process of Ying Yundong with a broad perspective. It organically integrates changes in international and domestic political situations with the history of water and rural development, highlighting the epochal characteristics of politics first during the Cultural Revolution. The novel describes the scenes of fishing, selling fish, cattle raising, cotton planting, double robbing and so on in the life of the water village very vividly and vividly. The atmosphere of life is rich, and the smell of the dirt in the rural fields and the overflowing winds of the lake are full of people's feelings. Especially gracious. It should be said that the strong regional style created consciously by writer Darto adds a new artistic style to the novel.

A realist novelist must be a “miscellaneous family” who is familiar with the details of life and has daily life experience. Dudu is good at gambling, rice planting, cattle raising, net weaving, fish touching, water digging, water digging, lotus picking, snail picking, witch doctor. The folk life experience of the water villages of Jianghan Plain, such as Ma Jia, is well known. The acquisition of these "knowledges" undoubtedly comes from the writer's personal life experience. The novel describes the teenager Yingyun Dongfeng blizzard digging the lake, "He finally saw a truncated hoe on the mud digging up from the iron mouth, which really made him happy. He dug a few digs in succession, but he still could not see him. He was a little impatient. He was busy pulling with his hands and probing with his feet. Still, his feet worked better than his hands, and he felt deeper and touched him. However, it was still not easy to get out of him. Yundong continued to throw away Silt, but the effect is not great, as much as you throw it, then the silt will fill you up. The water in the pit is getting more and more, he has no energy to re-water. The heat on his body seems to be all sludge. He sucked it little by little, and he began to tremble again, and it became more and more trembling, and it gradually seemed to be difficult to hold himself. He saw the water in the pit trembling with his trembling body. His feet touched 藕But he could n’t get it out. For a while, he seemed to feel hesitant, panicked, and quickly touched him with his feet, so he touched him again a few times. In fact, he kept stepping on his feet, only his feet. Frozen and numb, he lost consciousness. He also used the iron mouth to go The instep is like touching on the wood. "" He thought he couldn't use it like this anymore. So he put the iron hole and pulled it with his hands. He didn't do it first because he was afraid it would be broken. Alas, it would be too bad if the mud was poured into Aa's eyes. Now he can only break the boat and go all alone "," Half of his body is submerged in the mud and part of his face is not in the water. He held his breath, Finally, he took out a cymbal. Then he was motivated and took out the second verse. After doing so, his strength was almost exhausted. " ] 这是小说文本中少年应运东“第一次”挖藕的艰难情形,其所思所行,应该也是作家的真实生活经历。 [ ] This is the difficult situation of the youngster Ying Yundong's "first" excavation in the text of the novel. His thoughts and actions should also be the real life experience of the writer. Similar wonderful reproductions of life experience undoubtedly make the novel's narrative rich, prosperous, vivid, and swaying.

In novel novel narrative, knowledge writing about life experience, labor skills, worldly hearts, customs and folk customs is of great significance. One of the core standards for measuring the value of novel art is the success or failure of intellectual writing. In the era of poverty, there is no regret in the intellectual writing, nor is there any ill-conceived mistakes. Here you can imagine the accumulation of life outside the novels written by the writer. [ ] 类似的关于江汉平原水乡生活的知识性介绍,在小说中随处可见,有效地增强了小说的地域风味。 The novel describes how the folks spent the barren years and wrote: "The best way to deal with the barren years is to eat lakes by the lake. Fish and lotus roots are abundant in the sturgeon lake. People can go to the lake even if they stop eating. Find a way. People around the lake are equipped with fishing digging tools all year round. Such as killing nets, screens, nets, clips, catching dumplings, aiming dumplings, cents, flower covers, harpoons, etc. Households have prepared a few items, and they all come out as soon as they are used. Moreover, the water rises every spring and summer and the law of withdrawal in the fall and winter has become a law. It is easy to take a fish when it is out of water. The lake ’s water retreated too badly, affecting the living environment of the fish. The fish followed the water and gathered in the ditch to form a fish flood. The area around the Jianghan Plain Lake District is called “Flying Fish”. [ ] Similar The knowledgeable introduction to the life of the water village in the Jianghan Plain can be seen everywhere in the novel, effectively enhancing the regional flavor of the novel.

The strong regional color is due to the application of the symbols of the Jianghan Plain water village life in the novel, such as "honest and no complaint" (honest), "you Lang" (you), "open limit" (distant), "home visit "Li Xing" (blame), "Smoke goes out" (quiet), "Turn around" (Persuasion), "Do abduction" (Break up), "Stop pumping circle" (Persuasion), "Dismiss "(Let ’s go) and other dialects, which have a rich, earthy atmosphere, make them feel very kind. There are also folk customs, customs, special products, taboos, dialects, ballads, proverbs, burles, nursery rhymes, three and a half sentences, folk witchcraft, ancient sayings, guessing and shooting, killing happy pigs, wedding and funeral marriage customs, four seasons The writing of vulgar, shadow play, flower drum play, folk story, etc., is not only the need for the trend of the novel narrative festival, but also the cultural content presentation of Dudu writing the regional epic. In this sense, we can call this novel the "customs" of the water village in the Jianghan Plain. For example, this first generation of children's song "Three-year-old baby", how many people should wake up childhood memories:

A three-year-old baby will grind a ladder (push).

The powder of the ladder is not white, and the sweetness is not so sweet.

Dad ate thirteen and stayed two to pick up his mother-in-law.

My mother-in-law ate it, but she woke up to drink tea in the middle of the night.

The cook hit the front brain, and the latch hit the back brain.

On the threshold of a fall, the falling mother-in-law died.

Uncle's uncle, shouted, mother-in-law arrived at Tanaka Kan.

[ ] Dig deeper and bury more tightly, forbid this delicious mother-in-law to get up ... [ ]

Presence and beyond

Dado's novel aims to write the regional history of the Jianghan Plain, and to pass on the water and rural folk. Vivid presence is the most prominent feature of the novel. The writing gesture of paying attention to the bottom layer, being close to the soil, and focusing on the fate of the little people in the times of the times is quite different from Qi Bangyuan's "Liu Liuhe" and Wang Dingjun's "Memoirs Quartet" ("Yesterday's Cloud", "Angel's Eyes", "Guan Shan Ruo Lu" , "Literary Rivers and Lakes") and other people ’s grand narratives in their homeland and the world, their meditation and zero distance narrative sense, and Yang Yan ’s “Six Chapters of the School” fantasize that there is a cloak that can be “hidden by the sea like a sea”. Chen Baichen's "Yunmeng Duanyi" enjoys the indulgence and fun in the wild ducks, and the two are completely different. The distinctive presence is the concrete embodiment of the truthfulness of Dadu's novel writing, and also the concrete embodiment of the philosophy of existence that "the world is indifferent, treats everything as a dog", "all things work together, and wait and see what comes back".

Dudu's novels describe the real life of the water and countryside of the Jianghan Plain, which has the power to make people's heart and soul. The presence of the novel itself has its own meaning. [11] 达度小说原生态呈现的意义,更容易被误读为历史的真实,而非文学的审美。 Xie Youshun said: "Many times, we no longer pay attention to this kind of natural life, but instead set our sights on that deductive, fictional, and edited life. The popularity of TV shows shows exactly this. The charm of drama life. But life does not start in the way of fiction and drama. The kind of crisis, ups and downs, and climaxes are just a imagination of the screenwriter. The real life is more like prose, without center, without The main line is a feather, but there are also some wonderful scenes and details. " [11] The significance of the original ecology of Dudu's novels is more likely to be misunderstood as the truth of history, not the aesthetics of literature. And we know that once entering the field of writing, the raw materials of life will passively accept the choice and sublation of the writer, and the creativity of the creative subject will always be implicitly or explicitly reflected in the work. [12] 典型塑造是现实主义文学创作的金律,《贫困时代》对应运东的阅读史的关注,就具有鲜明的“典型”性意义。 Classic Marxism holds: "Realism means that in addition to the details of reality, the typical characters in typical environments must be realistically reproduced." [12] Modeling is the golden rule of realistic literary creation. The attention of Ying Yundong's reading history has a clear "typical" significance. The reading target of the rural youth Yingdong is folk stories, red classics, the four masterpieces, the party newspaper, the journal of Lu Xun, and of course war films, posters, etc., which can be said to be completely influenced by the mainstream ideology shrouded at the time This is not the same as the self-enlightening underground reading of Zhu Xueqin, Xu Youyu, etc., of course, it is also different from the Confucian training of traditional scholars starting from "three thousand", and their ideological growth will definitely affect the choice of future life and Formation of life philosophy. To a certain extent, the distinctive presence of The Age of Poverty has held back the transcendence of novel art. Because the secret of the novel is "the recovery of the elapsed time, but this is a simulation, a fiction, the thing of memory is dissolved in dream through fiction, and dream is dissolved in fiction". 真实与虚构的复杂交融,是小说艺术的魅力所在。 [13] The complex blend of reality and fiction is the charm of novel art. [14] 对于现实主义创作而言,作家所应执著的真实,远非生活原生态的真实,远非自然主义写作式的在场性,而是一种“更高真实”,其来源是心灵深处的真实情感,包括爱情、荣誉、同情、自豪和悲悯等,“少了这些永恒的真实情感,任何故事必然是昙花一现,难以久存”,福克纳说,“他若是不这样做,必将在一种诅咒的阴影下写作。因为他写的不是爱情而是情欲;他所写的失败里,谁也没有失去任何有价值的东西;他所写的胜利里没有希望,而最糟糕的还是没有怜悯和同情。他的悲伤并不带普遍性,留不下任何伤痕。他描写的不是人的灵魂,而是人的分泌” [15] As Goethe said in "Poetry and Truth": "The highest task of every art is to achieve a higher real illusion through hallucinations." [14] For realist creation, The obsessive truth is far from the reality of the original ecology of life, far from the presence of naturalistic writing, but a "higher truth", which is derived from the true emotions in the heart, including love, honor, sympathy, Pride and compassion, etc. "Without these eternal true emotions, any story must be fleeting and difficult to survive," said Faulkner. "If he does not do this, he will write in the shadow of a curse. Because he He wrote not love but passion; no one lost anything of value in the failure he wrote; there was no hope in the victory he wrote, and the worst thing was no pity and sympathy. His grief did not bring It is universal, leaving no scars. He describes not human soul, but human secretion " [15] . "Poverty Times" is undoubtedly a natural manifestation of the writer's true emotions. There is no artificial elevation or deliberate suppression. The pursuit of an uninterrupted zero-degree presentation and simulation restoration is the lack of aesthetic transcendence.

To some extent, the factor that can make up for the lack of aesthetic transcendence lies in the wonderful regional cultural presentation in the text of the novel. Regional culture, as a relatively constant factor that accumulates and precipitates in the years, has its own significance of breaking through the limitations and prescriptiveness of historical time. "Poverty Times" follows the development sequence of linear time. Although it is a retrospective field of vision, it is a close-type imaginary restoration. However, this presence that relies on historical evolution is not sufficient as evidence for avant-garde novelists. The writer's "memory logic" can easily destroy the objective truth of history. [16] 时间不足为凭,地域书写的意义便凸显出来。 As Yu Hua said, "The world is everything that happens, and the framework of everything that happens is time. So time represents a complete world in the past. Of course, time here is no longer the time in the real sense, it does not have A fixed order relationship. It should be a very random rule in the complicated and complicated past world. When we rearrange some facts of this past world through time, if we can arrange several new order relationships at the same time (this Is not a problem), then there will be several different new meanings. Such an arrangement is obviously completed by memory, so I call this arrangement the logic of memory. So, the meaning of time is that it is always at any time It is possible to restructure the world, that is to say, after each restructuring of time, a new attitude will appear in the world. " [16] Time is not enough, and the meaning of regional writing becomes prominent. Especially in realist writing, regional writing has unique and important significance. It transcends the presence and partially dispels the cruelty of real history, thus forming a tension space for narrative structure and emotional expression, emitting a more permanent Art glory.

Needless to say, the narrative ambition of “the life and dreams of working people in that era” is reproduced in a panoramic and holistic manner, and the writing pursuit of the history of the water and rural areas of the Jianghan Plain in the Cultural Revolution era is vividly and vividly infused into the plot of presence The dense display of scenes, changes, flows, and scenes are full, and the details are enlarged. As a result, the aesthetic image is relatively inadequate, the transcendence is insufficient, the necessary distance from the narrative object is lacking, and the power operation and political structure of rural reality are lacking. The necessary criticism and reflection, the use of violence and violence to resist evil against evil has its historical rationality, but it also lacks humanistic warmth, and the display of regional cultural style is too intensive and lacks the necessary tailoring and Refining these deficiencies can be said to be the dilemma of "presence and transcendence". As a masterpiece of the regional epic in Jianghan Plain, after all, it has provided us with new literary expression spaces and regions that can be remembered and cherished. Vision, its innovative significance cannot be underestimated.

——————————————

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 40 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 40 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 50 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, p. 50 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 48 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 48 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 502 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 502 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 418 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 418 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 47 48 页。 [ ] Dudu: "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , pp. 47-48 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 345 页。 [ ] Dudu : "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 345 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 190 191 页。 [ ] Dudu : "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, pp. 190-191 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 26 页。 [ ] Dudu : "The Age of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, p. 26 .

谢有顺:《记录也是一种善》,《消夏集》,安徽教育出版社 2013 年版,第 52 页。 [11] Xie Youshun: "Record is also a kind of good", "Xia Xia Ji", Anhui Education Press 2013 edition, p. 52 .

恩格斯:《恩格斯致玛·哈克奈斯》,《马克思恩格斯选集》,人民出版社 1995 年版,第 4 卷,第 683 页。 [12] Engels: "Engels to Ma Hakneys", "Selected Works of Marx and Engels", People's Publishing House 1995 edition, volume 4 , p. 683 .

巴尔加斯·略萨:《谎言中的真实——巴尔加斯·略萨谈创作》,赵德明译,云南人民出版社 2002 年版,第 77 页。 [13] Vargas Llosa: "The Truth in Lies: Vargas Llosa Talks about Creation", translated by Zhao Deming, Yunnan People's Publishing House 2002 , p. 77 .

伍蠡甫主编:《西方文论选》上册,上海译文出版社 1983 年版,第 446 页。 [14] Editor-in-Chief, Wu Yifu: Book of Selected Works on Western Literature, Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1983 , p. 446 .

参见林贤治:《自制的海图》,大象出版社 2000 年版,第 217 页。 [15] See Lin Xianzhi: "Homemade Charts", Elephant Press 2000 , p. 217 .

余华:《虚伪的作品》,《没有一条道路是重复的》,上海文艺出版社 2004 年版,第 164 页。 [16] Yu Hua: "False Works", "No Road Is Repeated", Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House 2004 Edition, p. 164 .

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Presence and Transcendence: A Wonderful Presentation of the Regional Epic in Jianghan Plain——On Dado's Novel "The Age of Poverty"

2016-10-25 00-00-00

    [ ] ,以洋洋洒洒近 60 万言的篇幅,书写江汉平原的地域历史,体现出留存历史风云、为时代盖棺论定的建构雄心。 Dado's novel "The Age of Poverty" [ ] , with a length of nearly 600,000 words, writes the regional history of the Jianghan Plain, reflecting the construction ambition of preserving historical situation and determining the coffin for the era. 1964 1976 年的平原水乡历史。 With the narrative passion of the Yangtze River and the majestic momentum of the mountains and tsunami, the novel reproduces the history of the plain water town from 1964 to 1976 in a panoramic manner . The focus of the novel lies in the fourth team of Fengwan Brigade, Yanglin Commune, Jiangyang County, near the Sturgeon Lake on the Jianghan Plain. As an artistic fiction, it is easy to think of the birthplace of writer Dudu, Yanglinwei Commune, Yonghe, Poyang County. The four teams of the brigade have experienced the turbulent lake of Sturgeon Lake today. The protagonist Ying Yundong and Dado are of the same age. The living environment and growth experience are quite similar, so it is easier to get the "narrative sympathy" of the writer. Such time and space, such characters, seem to have determined the "memory", "realism" and "return home" style of the novel's narrative, standing in the already successful present, looking back at the past, once suffering the pain Ten years of time will often become hazy and dreamlike, with less pain, and even be regarded as a necessary step and a necessary price to the peak of success. Therefore, suffering aesthetics, forgetting humiliation, and recreating poetry will often become literary writings of similar themes. Common sentiment trends, but it ’s clear that Dudu ’s "Poverty Times" is not here. On the one hand, it is a book that feels very kind to read, because it is a fine-grained work depicting the regional history of the Jianghan Plain. He Fengqing's works; on the other hand, this is a painful book. The dual constraints of material deprivation and spiritual poverty during the Cultural Revolution made it impossible for people in the novel to move, and the relationships between the characters in the novel were mostly original. The natural relationship, being ugly with neighbors, is very ugly, there is no end to struggle, no dignity for survival, and it is indeed the world of the Jianghan Plain water village in the history of the Cultural Revolution. The true representation of the people. A strong sense of presence is a distinctive feature of Dudu's novels. He dares to face the suffering and expose the scars. The truth hidden in the depths of the country ’s history is exposed in the sun. At the same time, the rich Jianghan Plain ’s regional cultural customs are displayed and reproduced. To some extent, the cruelty of real history has been eliminated, and the tension space of narrative structure and emotional expression has been formed, thus achieving the aesthetic transcendence of historical presence.

I. Deep Life Accumulation

"Poverty Times" uses strict realist creative techniques to make great efforts in the background, objective environment, details of life, and expression of experience in the novel, and strives to most realistically restore the "material" sense of existence in the water and countryside of the Jianghan Plain during the Cultural Revolution. A solid and profound narrative foundation for the text of the novel.

The first is a narrative of grassroots social administrative organizations and their operations, frequent political movements, and important historical events during the Cultural Revolution. The novel begins with the release of relief funds by the Socialist Rural Education Task Force. Through the plot of Hu Wa, a member of the socialist rural education team, pulling a crossbow and playing a horizontal gun to deceive two yuan anise, it realistically reproduces the greed of the people in the "poverty era". And sad. The novel is based on time, including the "Four Qings" movement, the five types of molecular criticism conference, the Cultural Revolution, the poor association representatives to supervise the production team leader and team members, break the four olds, "three combinations", posters, "early request for the evening report", " Correction "," Rebels ", Quotations Songs, Model Plays, Artificial Earth Satellite" Dongfanghong No. 1 "Successful Launch," One Dozen Three Against ", Shortened Educational System, Big Series, Educated Youths Going to the Countryside, Treasure Island War, Lin Biao incident, Lin Linping Kong, Ping Shuiyu, Zhou Enlai's death, Tiananmen incident, Mao Zedong's death, etc., constitute the iconic nodes of the novel's narrative. The novel works are also closely intertwined with historical documents, People's Daily editorials, posters, folk pleadings , News broadcasts, political slickness, and other materials with distinctive characteristics of the era, further the fictional plot and the fate of the characters within the framework of the real historical process. This method of narrative I call "historical fidelity."

The second is the realistic writing of the world of experience. There is no doubt that Dadu has a profound accumulation of life knowledge. Among the twelve winters and summers involved in the novel, he carefully presented this life experience and human knowledge, describing it vividly and vividly. [ ] For example, the novel wrote that the Laosha cow (cow) had no milk after the baby was born. The production team paid for the fried dough soy milk and gave the laosha cow a mother (milk). On the farm, "In the crowd, Yundong's father Ying Yuxian and Liu Fusheng were busy nervously. They found a fork and tied it to two horns, so that one person stopped the bull's head. Ying Yuxian opened the bull's mouth with one hand and put the other with The churros were stuffed into the ox's mouth, and the churros were stuffed with soy milk. Several other people listened to the command and asked to take whatever they asked for. This scene is similar to the irrigated cattle medicine. The difference is that the cattle medicine is very bitter. The cow refuses to drink, which makes it difficult to eat; and the churros and soy milk are cows willing to eat and drink, so it is not only stubborn, but also very cooperative. In this way, busy people will not be nervous and strenuous . " Using a fork to control a cow's head, and frittering soy milk, this kind of "knowledge of life" would not have been written so vividly without real life experience or without witnessing it. Another example is the novel about Ge Sheng fishing. "Ge Sheng is an old fish catcher. He knows where black fishes are hiding in the water. Black fishes generally like to create nests in dense water and grass. Sometimes the water is ventilated and the tail is swept away. , The water grass opened a nest by it. In hot weather, the black fish also likes to hide under the lotus leaf. If there are maggots jumping on the lotus leaf, most of them become the food in the mouth of the black fish. Some collapsed lotus leaves There was damage, or there was a big hole, it must be the mark left by the black fish. ”" Ge Sheng is in those sparse grasses and the edge of the collapsed lotus leaves. Here and there. This fishing method is called Baibaishuiwozi. This method is really effective. After a while, just listening to the sound of the water, Ge Sheng throws a bamboo pole in his hand, and a black fish is caught. This is a black fish with a long ruler. ] 文本中的“黑鱼”就是财鱼,“蚵蚂”即是青蛙,“咚白水窝子”的钓鱼技术等,无不带有鲜明的江汉平原水乡的地域特色,因为所叙是江汉平原水乡生活,小说文本中类似的用赶罾子、撒鱼网、下卡网、用鱼罩鱼等捕鱼的生动细节展示,所在多有,无不显示出达度富有深厚的生活经验积累和惊人的表现生活经验的叙述能力,这是现实主义小说的可贵品质。 [ ] The "black fish" in the text is the rich fish, the "trolling anteater" is the frog, and the "trenching white water nest" fishing techniques, etc., all have the distinctive regional characteristics of the Jianghan Plain water village because it is described Life in the water village, similar to the vivid details of fishing in the novel, such as catching crickets, spreading nets, lowering nets, and covering fish with fish, etc., there are many places, all of which show profound accumulation of profound life experience and amazing The narrative ability to express life experience is a valuable quality of realistic novels.

Second, deep emotional digging

Childhood life experience is of great significance to writers. The so-called hometown is not only a regional existence, but also an emotional existence. Middle-aged Darto traces back the entire process of the "Cultural Revolution" in writing, naturally using his childhood and adolescents' emotional storage, intertwined with the complex emotions of nostalgia for the hometown and absolute criticism. "I can't go back to my hometown", flowers bloom and thank, Yunjuanyunshu, Hutian is still there, people are wrong, and the "hometown" will flow with the passing of water. Once you leave, you can no longer arrive.

The novel is based on the deep emotional excavation based on objective authenticity. It mainly revolves around people, things, and things in the hometown. The emotional dimension is intertwined with love and hate. The emotional temperature is symbiosis of cold and heat. The writing position that pursues authenticity often tends to The original narrative of "zero-degree writing" in the novel's narrative, and the seemingly calm and calm narrative of the narrative, underlies the surging writing passion.

Children in rural areas are often blamed. Compared to children in cities, they are beaten much more often, and many times they are beaten for no reason at all. There is an old saying in the countryside, "If you hit a child on a rainy day, you will be idle when you are idle." Beating a child has become an important recreation and leisure activity in a village with a pale cultural life. Outsiders feel strange, but people in the bureau take it for granted. In childhood, Ying Yundong was often beaten. After being beaten, he was hungry and did not eat. The way to transfer his emotions was to stare at the ants on the ground. Ying Yundong's younger brother Yun Xi wants to play with his schoolbag, and he is reluctant to give it, "The next day at noon, Yun Dong and his playmates dispersed and went home for dinner. I didn't expect a guy was waiting for him. He didn't know what he did wrong. What happened. The father gave him fists and ears without any discrimination. Yun Dong lay on the ground and wept loudly, and refused to get up on the ground. He had n’t been hit hard by his father before, but as long as his mother was in front of him She always came out to turn. But not only did the mother not turn, but also counted him with jealousy. He knew that this guy had lost yesterday. But was it his fault yesterday? It was his schoolbag. Why did Yunxi take it away? He felt very aggrieved. Until the family had finished eating, he was still crying on the ground while watching the ants foraging. " ] 哥哥应该让弟弟,大孩子应该让小孩子,这是乡下人的“礼行”,是道德判断;而不分对错是非,争执的起因究竟如何,事实判断在乡下人的家庭冲突中永远缺席。 [ ] The elder brother should let the younger brother, the older child should let the younger child. This is the "rule" of the rural people, and it is a moral judgment; regardless of the right and wrong, the cause of the dispute, the facts judge the family conflict in the rural people. China will always be absent. Depicting the experience and feelings of beatings so vividly should not be a fiction of a writer. ? 从心理学角度来看,有过受虐经历的孩子长大以后,容易形成对强权的崇拜,在潜意识深处他希望成为那个施虐的人,或者将曾经的受虐屈辱转化为对强权的反抗,他会以为弱势群体出头抗争的方式反对强权。 Children in the Jianghan Plain village, especially the eldest son in the family, who has not had a leisurely childhood who was beaten for a long time without a video ? From a psychological perspective, it is easy for children who have experienced abuse to grow up. Forming a worship of power, deep in the subconscious, he hopes to be the person who abuses it, or transforms the former humiliation and humiliation into resistance to power, and he will oppose power in a way that the disadvantaged groups come forward to fight. This closeness and resistance to the power is the psychological motivation that determines Ying Dong's future life and fate. During the Cultural Revolution, he almost got caught up in the hat of "anti-Party and anti-socialism" for writing articles on opposing pedigree; he continued to read and read newspapers and wrote diligently, with the aim of one day getting ahead. The inner psychological driving force is still worship of power. His love and hatred for his father, often the hatred that grows from beatings for no reason, is often diluted by the warm affection that grows from the difficult struggle of the father and son working together to fish and sell fish and work together. [ ] 小说《贫困时代》也在此种莫名悲愤与屈辱的气氛中划上句号,满蕴着爱与恨、义愤与悲痛的情感张力。 Until his father was falsely accused of being a member of the theft gang, and was killed in the "Militia Command Study Class" of the production brigade, Ying Yundong shed blood in his heart while raising an unknown ghost fire, and secretly vowed: How did Qing ’s father die! He must wash his father ’s body for the wronged father! He must pay his blood debts to the murderers of his father! The last period is full of emotional tensions of love and hate, righteous anger and grief.

As for the piece of homeland underneath, Ying should be strict, and both father and son should be entangled in love and hatred, full of hesitation and contradiction. The rigid political and economic system of the Cultural Revolution era has imposed many restrictions and restrictions on people. People living in poverty-stricken land with poor properties and inactive homes should try to move many times to move to a place where they can live freely, without restrictions, and have rich products. Place to go, the result is always disillusioned. At the same time, the barren land on this side, after all, feeds the people in their hometown. They tried everything to survive. Eventually, Yinggeyan was to feed the birds and fish by sneaking fish and catching birds. One family member. Therefore, they are very grateful for this land. Ying Yundong's best friends, such as Yu Liang, Mu Sheng, Niu Wa, Shi Shi, and Ge Long, once gave him the most innocent friendship in childhood and adolescence. He secretly read the books and listened to stories in the Cultural Revolution era from his hometown. Reading a new chapter that opened up his vision of life was unthinkable and unforgettable.

Deep in love is speechless. Regarding the hometown, the dilemma of love and hate, of course, the most ideal method is to suspend morality without judgment, and just make a "zero-degree narrative" and state it. Therefore, we have read the most simple and true lover in the history of modern literature since Shen Congwen and Cao Yu. A migrant worker from the Shahu regiment was injured by a shovel because he watched others gambling. Ying Yundong, Yu Liang, Mu Sheng, and Niuwa went to see him. When they saw the "head wrapped with a health bandage, only two were exposed. "Patients with eyeballs", "the crowd can't help but laugh", the man complained:

"It's not very painful and hurt so much. I heard a blast at the time, and even my ears were shocked. I knew in my heart that it was finished with a shovel. What a good heart. From me The forehead has been cut to the bone of the nose, and all of it has been cut open. I know that even my eyes are separated, and I dare not pinch my head, it hurts, my speech hurts, and my nose is blown ... "

Several of them finally couldn't help but laugh again. ] [ ]

“将 屠夫的凶残 , 使大家 化为一笑, 收场大吉”,但这又确实是江汉平原水乡人们的真实心态。 This is a typical "watcher" mentality, which is the inferior root of Lu Xun's national aggravation- "to turn the butcher's brutality into a smile and end it", but it is indeed the true mentality of the people in the water village of Jianghan Plain. It wasn't a matter of personal concern, but it was supposed to be sympathetic to the innocent injured, but it was turned into talks for rural people for appreciation and entertainment. In the "Water Margin" chapter, after the chapter "Fake Li Zhi cuts his way to rob a single person, the black whirlwind Yiling kills the four tigers", he recounts that Li Zhi returned to Liangshanpo, telling that he killed fake Li Zhi along the way, and carried his old mother to Yiling, and was eaten by the tiger. In the process of killing the Four Tigers with his own sword, "everyone laughs". Where can the heroes who are acting on the sky and "seeing their brothers like their brothers and brothers" have any humanistic feelings? We really want to thank this "cold-blooded" text, because it writes the coldness of the world and the coldness of the world.

To show the authenticity and barbarity of civil society to the greatest extent is the pursuit of the degree of writing by Dudu. In the rural emotional world, the indifferent appreciation is often intertwined with the tender care. In the novel, the mother-child relationship between Chen Anying and Ying Yundong, the friendship between Ying Yundong and his friends, the relationship between the neighbors and family members, and so on, all have a warm chapter. Among them, the most authentic emotional excavation and wonderful presentation of the inner world of the water villagers is the narrative of the smoking woman. The smoker who was said to be from Hankou previously lived with Xia Zhiguang from the three teams. Xia Zhiguang used to have a wife, but his wife took his son away with others, so he lived with the smoker, but because of the smoke The wife likes smoking, drinking, and eating fish. He feels overwhelmed, so he asks Ying Geyan ’s father and widower Ying Yuxian to be a matchmaker. After a while, the smoking wife marries, and when she broke into the cave, she met Ying Yuxian. Live together. Unexpectedly, three months later, Ying Geyan's family couldn't afford the expense of the smoking woman. The smoking woman had to "where to go" and went back to Xia Zhiguang of the three teams. [ ] ,在生活格外贫困的条件下,应格严还经常打鱼换钱购买整条的新华香烟送给她,以致于陈安颖很不满意。 It should be said that Ying, who is the top pillar of the family, is still very good for the father's continuation string and his stepdaughter. "At that time, ten dollars was considered a fortune. Swimming smoke is called high-dried tobacco, and one cigarette is worth two. Block nine, most people ca n’t see it. One Xinhua cigarette is two and four, and most people ca n’t afford it. The most common is chicken gong, one pack of one corner and five, which is not affordable for everyone. ” [ ] , Under the circumstances of extremely poor living, Ying Geyan also often fished for money to buy the whole Xinhua cigarette and gave it to her, so that Chen Anying was not satisfied. The smoking woman "changed hands" between the two men, and the two sides did not feel that there was anything wrong, and the reason why the old man was "taken over" was because Xia Zhiguang saved his grandson Ying Yundong's life, and felt that the other side was kind. I promised to "take over" myself. The plainness and honesty of folk emotions can be seen here.

Third, strong regional colors

The novel's theme clues are clear, the narrative is smooth, fascinating, the random narratives are set freely, and the regional style is intentionally embellished. It is appropriately and appropriately displayed, which adds a lot to the novel. The wonderful plot of Hu Walai's account at the beginning of the novel evokes the reader's desire to read. The novel narrates the regional history of the Jianghan Plain during the Cultural Revolution. It describes the growth process of Ying Yundong with a broad perspective. It organically integrates changes in international and domestic political situations with the history of water and rural development, highlighting the epochal characteristics of politics first during the Cultural Revolution. The novel describes the scenes of fishing, selling fish, cattle raising, cotton planting, double robbing and so on in the life of the water village very vividly and vividly. The atmosphere of life is rich, and the smell of the dirt in the rural fields and the overflowing winds of the lake are full of people's feelings. Especially gracious. It should be said that the strong regional style created consciously by writer Darto adds a new artistic style to the novel.

A realist novelist must be a “miscellaneous family” who is familiar with the details of life and has daily life experience. Dudu is good at gambling, rice planting, cattle raising, net weaving, fish touching, water digging, water digging, lotus picking, snail picking, witch doctor. The folk life experience of the water villages of Jianghan Plain, such as Ma Jia, is well known. The acquisition of these "knowledges" undoubtedly comes from the writer's personal life experience. The novel describes the teenager Yingyun Dongfeng blizzard digging the lake, "He finally saw a truncated hoe on the mud digging up from the iron mouth, which really made him happy. He dug a few digs in succession, but he still could not see him. He was a little impatient. He was busy pulling with his hands and probing with his feet. Still, his feet worked better than his hands, and he felt deeper and touched him. However, it was still not easy to get out of him. Yundong continued to throw away Silt, but the effect is not great, as much as you throw it, then the silt will fill you up. The water in the pit is getting more and more, he has no energy to re-water. The heat on his body seems to be all sludge. He sucked it little by little, and he began to tremble again, and it became more and more trembling, and it gradually seemed to be difficult to hold himself. He saw the water in the pit trembling with his trembling body. His feet touched 藕But he could n’t get it out. For a while, he seemed to feel hesitant, panicked, and quickly touched him with his feet, so he touched him again a few times. In fact, he kept stepping on his feet, only his feet. Frozen and numb, he lost consciousness. He also used the iron mouth to go The instep is like touching on the wood. "" He thought he couldn't use it like this anymore. So he put the iron hole and pulled it with his hands. He didn't do it first because he was afraid it would be broken. Alas, it would be too bad if the mud was poured into Aa's eyes. Now he can only break the boat and go all alone "," Half of his body is submerged in the mud and part of his face is not in the water. He held his breath, Finally, he took out a cymbal. Then he was motivated and took out the second verse. After doing so, his strength was almost exhausted. " ] 这是小说文本中少年应运东“第一次”挖藕的艰难情形,其所思所行,应该也是作家的真实生活经历。 [ ] This is the difficult situation of the youngster Ying Yundong's "first" excavation in the text of the novel. His thoughts and actions should also be the real life experience of the writer. Similar wonderful reproductions of life experience undoubtedly make the novel's narrative rich, prosperous, vivid, and swaying.

In novel novel narrative, knowledge writing about life experience, labor skills, worldly hearts, customs and folk customs is of great significance. One of the core standards for measuring the value of novel art is the success or failure of intellectual writing. In the era of poverty, there is no regret in the intellectual writing, nor is there any ill-conceived mistakes. Here you can imagine the accumulation of life outside the novels written by the writer. [ ] 类似的关于江汉平原水乡生活的知识性介绍,在小说中随处可见,有效地增强了小说的地域风味。 The novel describes how the folks spent the barren years and wrote: "The best way to deal with the barren years is to eat lakes by the lake. Fish and lotus roots are abundant in the sturgeon lake. People can go to the lake even if they stop eating. Find a way. People around the lake are equipped with fishing digging tools all year round. Such as killing nets, screens, nets, clips, catching dumplings, aiming dumplings, cents, flower covers, harpoons, etc. Households have prepared a few items, and they all come out as soon as they are used. Moreover, the water rises every spring and summer and the law of withdrawal in the fall and winter has become a law. It is easy to take a fish when it is out of water. The lake ’s water retreated too badly, affecting the living environment of the fish. The fish followed the water and gathered in the ditch to form a fish flood. The area around the Jianghan Plain Lake District is called “Flying Fish”. [ ] Similar The knowledgeable introduction to the life of the water village in the Jianghan Plain can be seen everywhere in the novel, effectively enhancing the regional flavor of the novel.

The strong regional color is due to the application of the symbols of the Jianghan Plain water village life in the novel, such as "honest and no complaint" (honest), "you Lang" (you), "open limit" (distant), "home visit "Li Xing" (blame), "Smoke goes out" (quiet), "Turn around" (Persuasion), "Do abduction" (Break up), "Stop pumping circle" (Persuasion), "Dismiss "(Let ’s go) and other dialects, which have a rich, earthy atmosphere, make them feel very kind. There are also folk customs, customs, special products, taboos, dialects, ballads, proverbs, burles, nursery rhymes, three and a half sentences, folk witchcraft, ancient sayings, guessing and shooting, killing happy pigs, wedding and funeral marriage customs, four seasons The writing of vulgar, shadow play, flower drum play, folk story, etc., is not only the need for the trend of the novel narrative festival, but also the cultural content presentation of Dudu writing the regional epic. In this sense, we can call this novel the "customs" of the water village in the Jianghan Plain. For example, this first generation of children's song "Three-year-old baby", how many people should wake up childhood memories:

A three-year-old baby will grind a ladder (push).

The powder of the ladder is not white, and the sweetness is not so sweet.

Dad ate thirteen and stayed two to pick up his mother-in-law.

My mother-in-law ate it, but she woke up to drink tea in the middle of the night.

The cook hit the front brain, and the latch hit the back brain.

On the threshold of a fall, the falling mother-in-law died.

Uncle's uncle, shouted, mother-in-law arrived at Tanaka Kan.

[ ] Dig deeper and bury more tightly, forbid this delicious mother-in-law to get up ... [ ]

Presence and beyond

Dado's novel aims to write the regional history of the Jianghan Plain, and to pass on the water and rural folk. Vivid presence is the most prominent feature of the novel. The writing gesture of paying attention to the bottom layer, being close to the soil, and focusing on the fate of the little people in the times of the times is quite different from Qi Bangyuan's "Liu Liuhe" and Wang Dingjun's "Memoirs Quartet" ("Yesterday's Cloud", "Angel's Eyes", "Guan Shan Ruo Lu" , "Literary Rivers and Lakes") and other people ’s grand narratives in their homeland and the world, their meditation and zero distance narrative sense, and Yang Yan ’s “Six Chapters of the School” fantasize that there is a cloak that can be “hidden by the sea like a sea”. Chen Baichen's "Yunmeng Duanyi" enjoys the indulgence and fun in the wild ducks, and the two are completely different. The distinctive presence is the concrete embodiment of the truthfulness of Dadu's novel writing, and also the concrete embodiment of the philosophy of existence that "the world is indifferent, treats everything as a dog", "all things work together, and wait and see what comes back".

Dudu's novels describe the real life of the water and countryside of the Jianghan Plain, which has the power to make people's heart and soul. The presence of the novel itself has its own meaning. [11] 达度小说原生态呈现的意义,更容易被误读为历史的真实,而非文学的审美。 Xie Youshun said: "Many times, we no longer pay attention to this kind of natural life, but instead set our sights on that deductive, fictional, and edited life. The popularity of TV shows shows exactly this. The charm of drama life. But life does not start in the way of fiction and drama. The kind of crisis, ups and downs, and climaxes are just a imagination of the screenwriter. The real life is more like prose, without center, without The main line is a feather, but there are also some wonderful scenes and details. " [11] The significance of the original ecology of Dudu's novels is more likely to be misunderstood as the truth of history, not the aesthetics of literature. And we know that once entering the field of writing, the raw materials of life will passively accept the choice and sublation of the writer, and the creativity of the creative subject will always be implicitly or explicitly reflected in the work. [12] 典型塑造是现实主义文学创作的金律,《贫困时代》对应运东的阅读史的关注,就具有鲜明的“典型”性意义。 Classic Marxism holds: "Realism means that in addition to the details of reality, the typical characters in typical environments must be realistically reproduced." [12] Modeling is the golden rule of realistic literary creation. The attention of Ying Yundong's reading history has a clear "typical" significance. The reading target of the rural youth Yingdong is folk stories, red classics, the four masterpieces, the party newspaper, the journal of Lu Xun, and of course war films, posters, etc., which can be said to be completely influenced by the mainstream ideology shrouded at the time This is not the same as the self-enlightening underground reading of Zhu Xueqin, Xu Youyu, etc., of course, it is also different from the Confucian training of traditional scholars starting from "three thousand", and their ideological growth will definitely affect the choice of future life and Formation of life philosophy. To a certain extent, the distinctive presence of The Age of Poverty has held back the transcendence of novel art. Because the secret of the novel is "the recovery of the elapsed time, but this is a simulation, a fiction, the thing of memory is dissolved in dream through fiction, and dream is dissolved in fiction". 真实与虚构的复杂交融,是小说艺术的魅力所在。 [13] The complex blend of reality and fiction is the charm of novel art. [14] 对于现实主义创作而言,作家所应执著的真实,远非生活原生态的真实,远非自然主义写作式的在场性,而是一种“更高真实”,其来源是心灵深处的真实情感,包括爱情、荣誉、同情、自豪和悲悯等,“少了这些永恒的真实情感,任何故事必然是昙花一现,难以久存”,福克纳说,“他若是不这样做,必将在一种诅咒的阴影下写作。因为他写的不是爱情而是情欲;他所写的失败里,谁也没有失去任何有价值的东西;他所写的胜利里没有希望,而最糟糕的还是没有怜悯和同情。他的悲伤并不带普遍性,留不下任何伤痕。他描写的不是人的灵魂,而是人的分泌” [15] As Goethe said in "Poetry and Truth": "The highest task of every art is to achieve a higher real illusion through hallucinations." [14] For realist creation, The obsessive truth is far from the reality of the original ecology of life, far from the presence of naturalistic writing, but a "higher truth", which is derived from the true emotions in the heart, including love, honor, sympathy, Pride and compassion, etc. "Without these eternal true emotions, any story must be fleeting and difficult to survive," said Faulkner. "If he does not do this, he will write in the shadow of a curse. Because he He wrote not love but passion; no one lost anything of value in the failure he wrote; there was no hope in the victory he wrote, and the worst thing was no pity and sympathy. His grief did not bring It is universal, leaving no scars. He describes not human soul, but human secretion " [15] . "Poverty Times" is undoubtedly a natural manifestation of the writer's true emotions. There is no artificial elevation or deliberate suppression. The pursuit of an uninterrupted zero-degree presentation and simulation restoration is the lack of aesthetic transcendence.

To some extent, the factor that can make up for the lack of aesthetic transcendence lies in the wonderful regional cultural presentation in the text of the novel. Regional culture, as a relatively constant factor that accumulates and precipitates in the years, has its own significance of breaking through the limitations and prescriptiveness of historical time. "Poverty Times" follows the development sequence of linear time. Although it is a retrospective field of vision, it is a close-type imaginary restoration. However, this presence that relies on historical evolution is not sufficient as evidence for avant-garde novelists. The writer's "memory logic" can easily destroy the objective truth of history. [16] 时间不足为凭,地域书写的意义便凸显出来。 As Yu Hua said, "The world is everything that happens, and the framework of everything that happens is time. So time represents a complete world in the past. Of course, time here is no longer the time in the real sense, it does not have A fixed order relationship. It should be a very random rule in the complicated and complicated past world. When we rearrange some facts of this past world through time, if we can arrange several new order relationships at the same time (this Is not a problem), then there will be several different new meanings. Such an arrangement is obviously completed by memory, so I call this arrangement the logic of memory. So, the meaning of time is that it is always at any time It is possible to restructure the world, that is to say, after each restructuring of time, a new attitude will appear in the world. " [16] Time is not enough, and the meaning of regional writing becomes prominent. Especially in realist writing, regional writing has unique and important significance. It transcends the presence and partially dispels the cruelty of real history, thus forming a tension space for narrative structure and emotional expression, emitting a more permanent Art glory.

Needless to say, the narrative ambition of “the life and dreams of working people in that era” is reproduced in a panoramic and holistic manner, and the writing pursuit of the history of the water and rural areas of the Jianghan Plain in the Cultural Revolution era is vividly and vividly infused into the plot of presence The dense display of scenes, changes, flows, and scenes are full, and the details are enlarged. As a result, the aesthetic image is relatively inadequate, the transcendence is insufficient, the necessary distance from the narrative object is lacking, and the power operation and political structure of rural reality are lacking. The necessary criticism and reflection, the use of violence and violence to resist evil against evil has its historical rationality, but it also lacks humanistic warmth, and the display of regional cultural style is too intensive and lacks the necessary tailoring and Refining these deficiencies can be said to be the dilemma of "presence and transcendence". As a masterpiece of the regional epic in Jianghan Plain, after all, it has provided us with new literary expression spaces and regions that can be remembered and cherished. Vision, its innovative significance cannot be underestimated.

——————————————

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 40 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 40 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 50 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, p. 50 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 48 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 48 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 502 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 502 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 418 页。 [ ] Dudu: The Age of Poverty, China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 418 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 47 48 页。 [ ] Dudu: "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , pp. 47-48 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 345 页。 [ ] Dudu : "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 , p. 345 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 190 191 页。 [ ] Dudu : "Era of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, pp. 190-191 .

] 达度:《贫困时代》,中国文联出版社 2015 年版,第 26 页。 [ ] Dudu : "The Age of Poverty", China Federation of Literary and Art Publishing House, 2015 edition, p. 26 .

谢有顺:《记录也是一种善》,《消夏集》,安徽教育出版社 2013 年版,第 52 页。 [11] Xie Youshun: "Record is also a kind of good", "Xia Xia Ji", Anhui Education Press 2013 edition, p. 52 .

恩格斯:《恩格斯致玛·哈克奈斯》,《马克思恩格斯选集》,人民出版社 1995 年版,第 4 卷,第 683 页。 [12] Engels: "Engels to Ma Hakneys", "Selected Works of Marx and Engels", People's Publishing House 1995 edition, volume 4 , p. 683 .

巴尔加斯·略萨:《谎言中的真实——巴尔加斯·略萨谈创作》,赵德明译,云南人民出版社 2002 年版,第 77 页。 [13] Vargas Llosa: "The Truth in Lies: Vargas Llosa Talks about Creation", translated by Zhao Deming, Yunnan People's Publishing House 2002 , p. 77 .

伍蠡甫主编:《西方文论选》上册,上海译文出版社 1983 年版,第 446 页。 [14] Editor-in-Chief, Wu Yifu: Book of Selected Works on Western Literature, Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1983 , p. 446 .

参见林贤治:《自制的海图》,大象出版社 2000 年版,第 217 页。 [15] See Lin Xianzhi: "Homemade Charts", Elephant Press 2000 , p. 217 .

余华:《虚伪的作品》,《没有一条道路是重复的》,上海文艺出版社 2004 年版,第 164 页。 [16] Yu Hua: "False Works", "No Road Is Repeated", Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House 2004 Edition, p. 164 .

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