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The Literary Nature and New Standards of Internet Fiction

Source: Chinese writers network Published: 2013-12-24 Author: Zhang Ning

"How to establish an evaluation system for online literature" is a difficult but important issue that needs to be resolved. In recent years, I have been in contact with online literature for a long time, and I am no stranger to online literature, but as far as my inner feelings are concerned, I am still relatively new to online literature. I have participated in various online literature awards. I always thought that letting professional literature reviewers participate in the final review is to suppress the characteristics of online literature at the last level, and let our ten and eight judges take the tradition of online literature. Sex highlights and tells them that this is what wins them (although they care more about clickthrough rate than winning). It doesn't seem to mean exactly that now. I have been revising my views on an emerging literary trend like "Internet literature." Although my education and my usual research and teaching work are focusing on the kind of literature with thousands of years of tradition, I will tell students how to appreciate and identify, and how to make different works into a whole for the history of literature. Writing service.

We should not ignore the emerging style of online literature. The new literature style may contain the possibility of new literature, which is confirmed by the history of literature. In addition, the value of society and life is too rich and diverse. It is not that the literary history, literary theory, and literary specimens you have approved are the only correct ones in this world.

Talking from an Internet Novel

The "golden eyes" (net name) novel "Golden Eye" has a total of 1,314 chapters, about 4.5 million words, and has been written for 18 consecutive months, with an average of more than 240,000 words written every month and about 8,000 words updated every day. Compared to the dissemination of literary works on paper media, this is very amazing data. This is a new mode of literary production, dissemination and reading. The reading of online literature cannot be like traditional literature. The reading of traditional literature can focus on one week's spare time and finish reading a novel with hundreds of thousands of words, and the impression is relatively concentrated. This is not the way to read online literature, you must follow the author's upload frequency to track reading. The author has been writing for 18 months, and the reader must go up and read thousands of words every day during the 18 months. Take an hour to read the uploaded work before going to bed at night, and tell a post to write well before going to bed. Reading becomes part of everyday life and is no longer the object of education and research. With my traditional reading method, I concentrated my time on reading, and there is no paper version, and my eyes are really suffering.

In this extremely long novel "Golden Eye", the hero is a young man named Zhuang Rui, who is a staff member in the pawnshop and an amateur treasurer. He was injured as a result of an accident, and the injured eye produced a special function called "aura". This "aura" can identify jewelry and treat diseases. For example, his mother broke his waist, and Zhuang Rui stared at his injured waist with his eyes. The mother's waist had a cool feeling, and the waist injury was fine. For example, a piece of "jewelry", he can recognize the true and false through the "aura" reaction at a glance. The entire novel writes about the process of Zhuang Rui traveling around the country and recognizing the jewellery with the eyes of "aura". There are antique jewellery markets in every city in the country, such as Liulichang and Panjiayuan in Beijing, Yunzhou Antique City in Shanghai, Changshou Road in Xiguan, Guangzhou, Suzaku Street in Xi'an, Lhasa and many temples in ethnic minority areas. Antiques are different in one place. The protagonist walks around as a traveler, tying together all the stories that appear in the process of identifying antiques and antique transactions in each place. Every place will encounter strange people and wonders, enough for you to write, enough for you to read, coupled with the knowledge and fun of ordinary people who are not familiar with the antique trading industry, as well as various thrilling plots in jewelry trading, it is also very easy to read Attractive, and as long as the "production-distribution-distribution" chain continues, it can be written endlessly.

However, online novels are also novels, and online literature is also literature, which must meet the basic requirements of novels or literature. In particular, "fiction" in the modern sense does not just refer to "story" that emphasizes plot. Story is an ancient concept. How well a story is told requires analysis of its language, details, plot, layout, meaning, and other issues.

"Literature" of Internet Novels

The so-called "literature" is the basic problem of the internal research of literature. It studies the elements of literature and its composition. The first is language. The language of "Golden Pupil" is very good. According to the requirements of traditional literature, the narrative is smooth, and there are no dyslexias. The description of details and narrative control are well done, which meets the reading expectations of more audiences. The standards of novels, especially novels, are very different from those of poetry. The novels are a "world of miscellaneous languages" (Bakhtin). The "language" used by writers is also the "language" used by all people. "Good people" and "bad people" use it. Ordinary people use it, and writers use it. Everyone's usage is different. The characters of the novel appear in the novel in different identities. For example, a shy person speaks shyly in a novel; a well-educated person who speaks brilliantly in the language speaks brilliantly in the novel. Therefore, in the face of this novel language as the "world of linguistic narratives", we cannot judge the quality of the language of the novel based on the local language style. The key is how do you structure these "miscellaneous narratives" in the novel and whether it fits the overall structure And meaning requirements. In other words, language and detail serve the plot setting. Therefore, the plot setting is also important. The plot of the novel "Golden Eye" is very good, and the ability to change the plot is also very strong. The question is, since the language is good, the plot setting ability is strong, and the story is very attractive, can I use traditional literary standards to measure it, and consider it to be the first-class writer and work in contemporary traditional literature? No doubt it's not that simple. Because the novel also has the structural requirements of "narrative layout" and "overall layout", the former can be called "small structure" (narrative structure), and the latter can be called "large structure" (meaning structure).

Let me talk about the small structure concept of narrative structure. Traditional writers are very particular about the layout of the narrative, that is, "what to write first", "what to write next", "where to write more", "where to write less". The deep value pointed to by the layout structure is in line with the basic principles of human civilization evolution and social management, which is the "saving principle", that is, transmitting the greatest value with the least amount of space, "win more with less", "face with points", Compared to "Xingxing" and "Intertextuality", they all point to this general principle, instead of writing wherever I think, and writing whatever you like, let alone write it as a "current account" that distributes time and space equally. . With a limit of about 150,000 words to more than 1 million words, the writer will surely write more of the places that he is most interested in, and which are closely related to the "overall" value of the novel, and will try to control "free writing" as much as possible. In the production and dissemination of online literature, the important structural issue of the traditional "layout" has become less of an issue. The first is that there is no restriction on the space of the work. It uses the endless "cyberspace", including the emerging "cloud space". The second is the reader's freedom in time. The reader uses the "remaining time" or "game time" that is liberated by the contemporary social productive forces beyond the classical "labor time". Therefore, the "saving principle" in the narrative layout structure is nearly invalid here, and writing and reading can be a "dissipative" behavior.

At the same time, the fragmentation of the "remaining time" or "playing time" mentioned above is highly consistent with the fragmentation and arbitrariness of online literary narratives, which eliminates the traditional narrative requirements of narratives. Question: How to treat the "meaning structure" of narrative works? We believe that this is an important measure of the writer's overall view of the self and others, society and the world. Otherwise, the small structure of the narrative layout will become chaotic and even incomprehensible. Internet novelists don't pay much attention to the big structural concept of "narrative totality". What is totality? For example, what story does Dream of Red Mansions tell? We need to have the ability to speak out the overall narrative problem of this novel in two words, and then talk about how it achieves the narrative goal and how to present the narrative theme, including language style, detailed description, plot setting, characterization, and overall structure. Relationship.

Although different readers have different understandings, discoveries, and generalizations of the "narrative totality" of the work, the requirement to make the work "understandable totality" has not changed, and all require details and plots to have a uniform cause and effect in the flow of time. Relevance. If there is no such "narrative totality", but a loose and random jumping writing and reading, it will lead to the diffuseness of the structure, that is, the non-centered and uncertain direction of the narrative meaning. This arbitrary collage of narrative fragments of experience becomes incomprehensible from the perspective of traditional thinking and value pursuit. If we ask for internet literature creation like this, then their writing will collapse, and they can only turn to internet readers for help. This situation will only increase the gap between literary evaluation and literary dissemination. Is it necessary to use the large-structured standards mentioned above to require online literature? Without solving this problem, it will be difficult to continue the discussion on the issue of "evaluation system for network literature."

Theoretical difficulties faced by the new standard

According to the standards of traditional literature, the doubts of online novels do not lie in elements such as general language and plot settings, but in "overall layout" or "meaning structure". If we do not intend to make this question absolute, then we need to re-discuss the theoretical legitimacy of the "overall layout" or "meaning structure" of traditional literature.

The overall nature of the novel's narrative structure is actually a manifestation of the "human-centered theory" (which can also include the "geocentric theory" and "heliocentric theory") in the narrative style. The single-centered world structure model has produced a series of problems, such as the geopolitical western center, the logos center on the structure of language and meaning, the human center in the sense of moral practice, in addition to the patriarchal center, the urban center, etc. . The construction of these standards comes from the reinterpretation of the Greek and Hebrew traditions by the Western Renaissance. It is believed that the world has a unique center, and a perfect structure is formed around this center. Only then can the world become the object that human beings can grasp and understand. The transformation of this concept from the natural sciences to the humanities was not completed until the 18th century (Kant, Descartes, Locke). The concept of modern fiction only emerged in the 18th century, bringing together unique personal experiences and becoming the core content of modern fiction. The narrative of personal experience must form a unified causal relationship in time, and then weave them into the complete structure of "center-edge" produced by the centripetal action of gravity. As a result, the imitation of "perfect culture" by classical literature was replaced by the imitation of "perfect life" by modern literature; the timeless "poetic ideal" in classical novels was replaced by the historical evolution of "human truth" in modern novels (evolution Time). The narrative layout is actually the embodiment of the "time" element, and the overall layout is actually the embodiment of the "meaning structure". Eighteenth-century educational novels, growth novels, or roaming novels are representative of this modern form. The May 4th Enlightenment literature borrowed from and inherited this kind of literary standard. The novels of Ba Jin, Mao Dun, Ye Shengtao, Lao She, Lu Ling and others all accorded with this.

In fact, whether it is the way of understanding the world or the way of describing things, the above-mentioned modern meaning or the narrative structure (historical narrative and totality) of modern fiction can only be said to be one of many types. . We can cite many opposite examples, such as the box-shaped frame structure of Arabian One Thousand and One Nights, the beaded structure of Japan's Tale of Genji, the oriental box structure of India's Five Books, and the Chinese Dream of Red Mansions. 》 Circular cobweb structure and so on. The narrative structure of "Yang Xian Scholars" ("Xi Qi Xi Zhi"), which is derived from Buddhist parables, is a complete structure of an Eastern fantasy world. In addition, there are the "tree of life" mode in folk narrative, the structure of "Krishna's transfiguration of the universe" ("Bhagavad-gita"), a new view of space-time in modern physics, Foucault's critique of the uniqueness of the pleasure center, Roland · The narrative model of Balt's "The Lover's Whispers", the obsolete "Biography of Mr. Mo Xuyou" and "After Mr. Mo Xuyou Takes an Airplane", Shen Congwen's "The Long River" and "Border Town", etc.

Eastern mysticism is far away from our lives, and the cutting-edge achievements of modern science are also far away from our lives. The principle of humanities' interpretation of the world is still "classical mechanics". Can it break the structural "geocentric theory" and "heliocentric theory", and break the traditional mode of thinking and narrative of world cognition? If it can, then the classic literary evaluation system, including our understanding of the novel's narrative structure, can also be overturned. The first thing that needs to be subverted is the single-centered elite discourse model and its set of rules in the literary evaluation system.

The "sense structure" models listed above that deviate from the Western-centered discourse for nearly 500 years are actually opposed to single-centeredness and promote multi-centeredness. They are manifested in the novel's narrative structure, that is, the polycentric, open style of the narrative. Then we began to understand why the novel is an "unfinished open style" (Bakhtin), not just an "epic of civil society" (Hegel), or "a problematic society" Problematic people's journey in search of meaning "(Lukacs). Perhaps an excellent online novel with folk narrative color is just such an open, unfinished new style. Every part of its narrative is very detailed. The fragments of each story are the focus of the narrative. Each uploaded piece can set off a small climax, and each piece of work can climax, that is, multi-center, multi-climax, multi-theme. , Multiple characters, multiple texts, and multiple meanings, just like a big tree that thrives, whether the root of this "tree of life" is stuck in the land (real) or in the sky (fantasy), It can be regarded as an artistic intuitive capture of the mysterious and diverse world. As the folk literature expert Mr. Liu Kuili said, the life tree of folk narration has "great vitality" and "mystery", which is one of the "infinite richness, complexity, regularity and concealment of internal mechanisms of the world" Kind of symbol. "

So far, we have mentioned the two deviation trends of traditional literature from online literature. First, in the production and dissemination of works, there is no limit to both time and space, so there is no need to follow the "saving principle" in traditional narration. Second, the overall meaning of the narrative structure deviates from the requirements of the overall narrative structure established by western literature since modern times, and presents a diversified and polycentric diffuse structure. I am not quite sure about the value judgement of this new model and feature. It requires the involvement of multiple professionals and further research and evaluation.

Specialization of evaluation systems and research

The production and dissemination of network literature is an objective fact. Internet literature research must first face this fact, and it should not be preconceived to change this fact. As some online writers have said, online literature is based on the "reader selection mechanism", and its elimination mechanism is also very cruel. The entire production and dissemination process of online literature has its own special characteristics, unlike traditional literature. However, under the surface of this production and dissemination process, are there other deep factors besides the click-through rate of the writer's narrative power? What narrative model has broad appeal? How was a huge "production-communication-feeling" community established? What is its cultural value or significance? These need to be re-examined. The current basic status of online literature can be called the "primitive accumulation of capital" stage, and there is still much room for discussion and standardization. This is the basic motivation for "establishing an evaluation system for online literature".

In addition, any emerging form of literature and art (including novels, pop music, movies, television, etc.) has a natural development process from popularization to classicization. The so-called "classicalization" is to turn something new, something that nobody has talked about into something that can be talked about, that is, to invent a set of basic terms to summarize it and evaluate it, so that it can be included in the evolution of human civilization. History of Discourse Review System. For example, to enter the history of literature, we must use the language of the history of literature to speak of it, instead of simply relying on digital things such as impressions and click-through rates. The basic idea of the research is to gradually turn to "value judgment" based on "fact judgment"-this is also an important goal of "establishing an evaluation system for online literature".

At present, the scale of online literature researchers is extremely disproportionate to the scale of production and dissemination of online literature, and the professional standards of research need to be improved. It is necessary to change the two extreme research attitudes: either to be extremely degraded and ignored, or to be fascinated and incapable of plunging into the research object. One of these two attitudes is unwillingness to face facts directly, and the other is to directly value unresearched facts. The first problem facing researchers of online literature is the excessive or lack of terminology, which makes language unable to reach and capture research objects. The use of theoretical terms follows two principles:

First, the principles of screening and utilization. In order to maintain the historical continuity of the literary evaluation system itself, traditional literary research and critical terms cannot be rejected. How to apply them to the evaluation of network literature, not every traditional literary term can be directly transferred to the evaluation of network literature. Some of them work, some do not, and they need to be carefully screened. Faced with the novel of "Ukiyo-e" on the Internet, "Typical Characters in Typical Environments" are not very useful; Faced with Internet novels that focus on expressing female emotions, "Big History Scrolls" are not very useful In the face of fantasy novels, "grounded works" do not work well. But at the same time, there are some terms, such as the language style, plot mode, narrative layout, and overall structure of literary internal research, which can be used completely. This is the "screening and conversion" principle of traditional literary terms.

Second, the principle of accurate and effective term innovation. In the face of new literary objects, in addition to the selection and transformation of traditional literary terms, there must be new term inventions and innovations. These new terms are mostly derived from online literature, which are very targeted, but also miscellaneous. Many, it needs to be accurate and effective when selecting. First of all, it is necessary to judge the facts and what it is. At this stage, many literary critics are doing it, and then it is necessary to enter the value judgment. What does it mean? The invention of a new term must be accurate and effective. I call it the principle of validity of term innovation.

How to study the new complex fact of network literature and finally establish a scientific evaluation system is a complex systems project that requires multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary collaboration to complete. The interdisciplinary structure should include experts in three main academic fields: the first is traditional literature experts, including Chinese classical literature, modern Chinese literature, and foreign literature; on the one hand, because it is a member of the "literary family", it requires literature Sexual research, on the other hand, is that it often "traverses". The combination of these experts can more accurately grasp the "temporal and spatial traversal" characteristics in online novels. The second is an expert in folk literature, folklore, and literary anthropology and sociology. Because online literature is not the same as traditional literature, it deviates from the "modernity" discourse (human center) in the structural way. The "person" in the novel is polysemous, including "natural person", "kind of person", " "People in groups", "people of God", and "impulses to return to ancestors" often appear. The narrative style is often rich in folk literature and folklore. The third is an expert in communication, media culture, and symbolic economics. Network literature is not the same as popular popular best-selling paper books. It is first spread in a network virtual space with a text symbol, and the entire production and communication process is closely related to capital operations. These three areas of knowledge need to blend and integrate. It is very important to integrate experts and knowledge in these three fields in the professional process of network literature research. Therefore, we can make the research of network literature from fact judgment to value judgment.

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The Literary Nature and New Standards of Internet Fiction

2013-12-24 00-00-00

"How to establish an evaluation system for online literature" is a difficult but important issue that needs to be resolved. In recent years, I have been in contact with online literature for a long time, and I am no stranger to online literature, but as far as my inner feelings are concerned, I am still relatively new to online literature. I have participated in various online literature awards. I always thought that letting professional literature reviewers participate in the final review is to suppress the characteristics of online literature at the last level, and let our ten and eight judges take the tradition of online literature. Sex highlights and tells them that this is what wins them (although they care more about clickthrough rate than winning). It doesn't seem to mean exactly that now. I have been revising my views on an emerging literary trend like "Internet literature." Although my education and my usual research and teaching work are focusing on the kind of literature with thousands of years of tradition, I will tell students how to appreciate and identify, and how to make different works into a whole for the history of literature. Writing service.

We should not ignore the emerging style of online literature. The new literature style may contain the possibility of new literature, which is confirmed by the history of literature. In addition, the value of society and life is too rich and diverse. It is not that the literary history, literary theory, and literary specimens you have approved are the only correct ones in this world.

Talking from an Internet Novel

The "golden eyes" (net name) novel "Golden Eye" has a total of 1,314 chapters, about 4.5 million words, and has been written for 18 consecutive months, with an average of more than 240,000 words written every month and about 8,000 words updated every day. Compared to the dissemination of literary works on paper media, this is very amazing data. This is a new mode of literary production, dissemination and reading. The reading of online literature cannot be like traditional literature. The reading of traditional literature can focus on one week's spare time and finish reading a novel with hundreds of thousands of words, and the impression is relatively concentrated. This is not the way to read online literature, you must follow the author's upload frequency to track reading. The author has been writing for 18 months, and the reader must go up and read thousands of words every day during the 18 months. Take an hour to read the uploaded work before going to bed at night, and tell a post to write well before going to bed. Reading becomes part of everyday life and is no longer the object of education and research. With my traditional reading method, I concentrated my time on reading, and there is no paper version, and my eyes are really suffering.

In this extremely long novel "Golden Eye", the hero is a young man named Zhuang Rui, who is a staff member in the pawnshop and an amateur treasurer. He was injured as a result of an accident, and the injured eye produced a special function called "aura". This "aura" can identify jewelry and treat diseases. For example, his mother broke his waist, and Zhuang Rui stared at his injured waist with his eyes. The mother's waist had a cool feeling, and the waist injury was fine. For example, a piece of "jewelry", he can recognize the true and false through the "aura" reaction at a glance. The entire novel writes about the process of Zhuang Rui traveling around the country and recognizing the jewellery with the eyes of "aura". There are antique jewellery markets in every city in the country, such as Liulichang and Panjiayuan in Beijing, Yunzhou Antique City in Shanghai, Changshou Road in Xiguan, Guangzhou, Suzaku Street in Xi'an, Lhasa and many temples in ethnic minority areas. Antiques are different in one place. The protagonist walks around as a traveler, tying together all the stories that appear in the process of identifying antiques and antique transactions in each place. Every place will encounter strange people and wonders, enough for you to write, enough for you to read, coupled with the knowledge and fun of ordinary people who are not familiar with the antique trading industry, as well as various thrilling plots in jewelry trading, it is also very easy to read Attractive, and as long as the "production-distribution-distribution" chain continues, it can be written endlessly.

However, online novels are also novels, and online literature is also literature, which must meet the basic requirements of novels or literature. In particular, "fiction" in the modern sense does not just refer to "story" that emphasizes plot. Story is an ancient concept. How well a story is told requires analysis of its language, details, plot, layout, meaning, and other issues.

"Literature" of Internet Novels

The so-called "literature" is the basic problem of the internal research of literature. It studies the elements of literature and its composition. The first is language. The language of "Golden Pupil" is very good. According to the requirements of traditional literature, the narrative is smooth, and there are no dyslexias. The details and narrative control are well done, which meets the reading expectations of more audiences. The standards of novels, especially novels, are very different from those of poetry. The novels are a "world of miscellaneous languages" (Bakhtin). The "language" used by writers is also the "language" used by all people. "Good people" and "bad people" use it. Ordinary people use it, and writers use it. Everyone's usage is different. The characters of the novel appear in the novel in different identities. For example, a shy person speaks shyly in a novel; a well-educated person who speaks brilliantly in the language speaks brilliantly in the novel. Therefore, in the face of this novel language as the "world of linguistic narratives", we can not judge the quality of the language of the novel based on the local language style. The key is how do you structure these "miscellaneous narratives" in the novel, and whether it conforms to the overall structure And meaning requirements. In other words, language and detail serve the plot setting. Therefore, the plot setting is also important. The plot of the novel "Golden Eye" is very good, and the ability to change the plot is also very strong. The question is, since the language is good, the plot setting ability is strong, and the story is very attractive, can I use traditional literary standards to measure it, and consider it to be the first-class writer and work in contemporary traditional literature? No doubt it's not that simple. Because the novel also has the structural requirements of "narrative layout" and "overall layout", the former can be called "small structure" (narrative structure), and the latter can be called "large structure" (meaning structure).

Let me talk about the small structure concept of narrative structure. Traditional writers are very particular about the layout of the narrative, that is, "what to write first", "what to write next", "where to write more", "where to write less". The deep value pointed to by the layout structure is in line with the basic principles of human civilization evolution and social management, which is the "saving principle", that is, transmitting the greatest value with the least amount of space, "win more with less", "face with dots", "borrow Compared to "Xingxing" and "Intertextuality", they all point to this general principle, instead of writing wherever I think, and writing whatever you like, let alone write it as a "current account" that distributes time and space equally. . With a limit of about 150,000 words to more than 1 million words, the writer will surely write more of the places that he is most interested in, and which are closely related to the "overall" value of the novel, and will try to control "free writing" as much as possible. In the production and dissemination of online literature, the important structural issue of the traditional "layout" has become less of an issue. The first is that there is no restriction on the space of the work. It uses the endless "cyberspace", including the emerging "cloud space". The second is the reader's freedom in time. The reader uses the "remaining time" or "game time" that is liberated by the contemporary social productive forces beyond the classical "labor time". Therefore, the "saving principle" in the narrative layout structure is nearly invalid here, and writing and reading can be a "dissipative" behavior.

At the same time, the fragmentation of the "remaining time" or "playing time" mentioned above is highly consistent with the fragmentation and arbitrariness of online literary narratives, which eliminates the traditional narrative requirements of narratives, so it leads to the following Question: How to treat the "meaning structure" of narrative works? We believe that this is an important measure of the writer's overall view of the self and others, society and the world. Otherwise, the small structure of the narrative layout will become chaotic and even incomprehensible. Internet novelists don't pay much attention to the big structural concept of "narrative totality". What is totality? For example, what story does Dream of Red Mansions tell? We need to have the ability to speak out the overall narrative problem of this novel in two words, and then talk about how it achieves the narrative goal and how to present the narrative theme, including language style, detailed description, plot setting, characterization and overall structure. Relationship.

Although different readers have different understandings, discoveries, and generalizations of the "narrative totality" of the work, the requirement to make the work "understandable totality" has not changed, and all require details and plots to have a uniform cause and effect in the flow of time. Relevance. If there is no such "narrative totality", but a loose and random jumping writing and reading, it will lead to the diffuseness of the structure, that is, the non-centered and uncertain direction of the narrative meaning. This arbitrary collage of narrative fragments of experience becomes incomprehensible from the perspective of traditional thinking and value pursuit. If we ask for internet literature creation like this, then their writing will collapse, and they can only turn to internet readers for help. This situation will only increase the gap between literary evaluation and literary dissemination. Is it necessary to use the large-structured standards mentioned above to require online literature? Without solving this problem, it will be difficult to continue the discussion on the issue of "evaluation system for network literature."

Theoretical difficulties faced by the new standard

According to the standards of traditional literature, the doubts of online novels do not lie in elements such as general language and plot settings, but in "overall layout" or "meaning structure". If we do not intend to make this question absolute, then we need to re-discuss the theoretical legitimacy of the "overall layout" or "meaning structure" of traditional literature.

The overall nature of the novel's narrative structure is actually a manifestation of the "human-centered theory" (which can also include the "geocentric theory" and "heliocentric theory") in the narrative style. The single-centered world structure model has produced a series of problems, such as the geopolitical western center, the logos center on the structure of language and meaning, the human center in the sense of moral practice, in addition to the patriarchal center, the urban center, etc. . The construction of these standards comes from the reinterpretation of the Greek and Hebrew traditions by the Western Renaissance. It is believed that the world has a unique center, and a perfect structure is formed around this center. Only then can the world become an object that humans can grasp and understand. The transformation of this concept from the natural sciences to the humanities was not completed until the 18th century (Kant, Descartes, Locke). The concept of modern fiction only emerged in the 18th century, bringing together unique personal experiences and becoming the core content of modern fiction. The narrative of personal experience must form a unified causal relationship in time, and then weave them into the complete structure of "center-edge" produced by the centripetal action of gravity. As a result, the imitation of "perfect culture" by classical literature was replaced by the imitation of "perfect life" by modern literature; the timeless "poetic ideal" in classical novels was replaced by the historical evolution of "human truth" in modern novels (evolution Time). The narrative layout is actually the embodiment of the "time" element, and the overall layout is actually the embodiment of the "meaning structure". Eighteenth-century educational novels, growth novels, or roaming novels are representative of this modern form. The May 4th Enlightenment literature borrowed from and inherited this kind of literary standard. The novels of Ba Jin, Mao Dun, Ye Shengtao, Lao She, Lu Ling and others all accorded with this.

In fact, whether it is the way of understanding the world or the way of describing things, the above-mentioned modern meaning or the narrative structure (historical narrative and totality) of modern fiction can only be said to be one of many types. . We can cite many opposite examples, such as the box-shaped frame structure of Arabian One Thousand and One Nights, the beaded structure of Japan's Tale of Genji, the oriental box structure of India's Five Books, and the Chinese Dream of Red Mansions. 》 Circular cobweb structure and so on. The narrative structure of "Yang Xian Scholars" ("Xi Qi Xi Zhi"), which is derived from Buddhist parables, is a complete structure of an Eastern fantasy world. In addition, there are the "tree of life" mode in folk narrative, the structure of "Krishna's transfiguration of the universe" ("Bhagavad-gita"), a new view of space-time in modern physics, Foucault's critique of the uniqueness of pleasure center, Roland · The narrative model of Balt's "The Lover's Whispers", the obsolete "Biography of Mr. Mo Xuyou" and "After Mr. Mo Xuyou Takes an Airplane", Shen Congwen's "The Long River" and "Border Town", etc.

Eastern mysticism is far away from our lives, and the cutting-edge achievements of modern science are also far away from our lives. The principle of humanities' interpretation of the world is still "classical mechanics". Can it break the structural "geocentric theory" and "heliocentric theory", and break the traditional mode of thinking and narrative of world cognition? If it can, then the classic literary evaluation system, including our understanding of the novel's narrative structure, can also be overturned. The first thing that needs to be subverted is the single-centered elite discourse model and its set of rules in the literary evaluation system.

The "sense structure" models listed above that deviate from the Western-centered discourse for nearly 500 years are actually opposed to single-centeredness and promote multi-centeredness. They are manifested in the novel's narrative structure, that is, the polycentric, open style of the narrative. Then we began to understand why the novel is an "unfinished open style" (Bakhtin), not just an "epic of civil society" (Hegel), or "a problematic society" Problematic people's journey in search of meaning "(Lukacs). Perhaps an excellent online novel with folk narrative color is just such an open, unfinished new style. Every part of its narrative is very detailed. The fragments of each story are the focus of the narrative. Each uploaded piece can set off a small climax, and each piece of work can climax, that is, multi-center, multi-climax, and multi-theme. , Multiple characters, multiple texts, and multiple meanings, just like a big tree that thrives, whether the root of this "tree of life" is stuck in the land (real) or in the sky (fantasy), It can be regarded as an artistic intuitive capture of the mysterious and diverse world. As the folk literature expert Mr. Liu Kuili said, the life tree of folk narration has "great vitality" and "mystery", which is one of the "infinite richness, complexity, regularity and concealment of the internal mechanism of the world" Kind of symbol. "

So far, we have mentioned the two deviation trends of traditional literature from online literature. First, in the production and dissemination of works, there is no limit to both time and space, so there is no need to follow the "saving principle" in traditional narrative. Second, the overall meaning of the narrative structure deviates from the requirements of the overall narrative structure established by western literature since modern times, and presents a diversified and polycentric diffuse structure. I am not quite sure about the value judgement of this new model and feature. It requires the involvement of multiple professionals and further research and evaluation.

Specialization of evaluation systems and research

The production and dissemination of network literature is an objective fact. Internet literature research must first face this fact, and it should not be preconceived to change this fact. As some online writers have said, online literature is based on the "reader selection mechanism", and its elimination mechanism is also very cruel. The entire production and dissemination process of online literature has its own special characteristics, unlike traditional literature. However, under the surface of this production and dissemination process, are there other deep factors besides the click-through rate of the writer's narrative power? What narrative model has broad appeal? How was a huge "production-communication-feeling" community established? What is its cultural value or significance? These need to be re-examined. The current basic status of online literature can be called the "primitive accumulation of capital" stage, and there is still much room for discussion and standardization. This is the basic motivation for "establishing an evaluation system for online literature".

In addition, any emerging form of literature and art (including novels, pop music, movies, television, etc.) has a natural development process from popularization to classicization. The so-called "classicalization" is to turn something new, something that nobody has talked about into something that can be talked about, that is, to invent a set of basic terms to summarize it and evaluate it, so that it can be included in the evolution of human civilization. History of Discourse Review System. For example, to enter the history of literature, we must use the language of the history of literature to speak of it, instead of simply relying on digital things such as impressions and click-through rates. The basic idea of the research is to gradually turn to "value judgment" based on "fact judgment"-this is also an important goal of "establishing an evaluation system for online literature".

At present, the scale of online literature researchers is extremely disproportionate to the scale of production and dissemination of online literature, and the professional standards of research need to be improved. It is necessary to change the two extreme research attitudes: either to be extremely degraded and ignored, or to be fascinated and incapable of plunging into the research object. One of these two attitudes is unwillingness to face facts directly, and the other is to directly value unresearched facts. The first problem facing researchers of online literature is the excessive or lack of terminology, which makes language unable to reach and capture research objects. The use of theoretical terms follows two principles:

First, the principles of screening and utilization. In order to maintain the historical continuity of the literary evaluation system itself, traditional literary research and critical terms cannot be rejected. How to apply them to the evaluation of network literature, not every traditional literary term can be directly transferred to the evaluation of network literature. Some of them work, some do not, and they need to be carefully screened. Faced with the novel of "Ukiyo-e" on the Internet, "Typical Characters in Typical Environments" are not very useful; in the face of Internet novels that focus on expressing female emotions, "the magnificent historical picture" is not very useful. In the face of fantasy novels, "grounded works" do not work well. But at the same time, there are some terms, such as the language style, plot mode, narrative layout, and overall structure of literary internal research, which can be used completely. This is the "screening and conversion" principle of traditional literary terms.

Second, the principle of accurate and effective term innovation. In the face of new literary objects, in addition to the selection and transformation of traditional literary terms, there must be new term inventions and innovations. These new terms are mostly derived from online literature, which are very targeted, but also miscellaneous. Many, it needs to be accurate and effective when selecting. First of all, it is necessary to judge the facts and what it is. At this stage, many literary critics are doing it, and then it is necessary to enter the value judgment. What does it mean? The invention of a new term must be accurate and effective. I call it the principle of validity of term innovation.

How to study the new complex fact of network literature and finally establish a scientific evaluation system is a complex systems project that requires multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary collaboration to complete. The interdisciplinary structure should include experts in three main academic fields: the first is traditional literature experts, including Chinese classical literature, modern Chinese literature, and foreign literature; on the one hand, because it is a member of the "literary family", it requires literature Sexual research, on the other hand, is that it often "traverses". The combination of these experts can more accurately grasp the "temporal and spatial traversal" characteristics in online novels. The second is an expert in folk literature, folklore, and literary anthropology and sociology. Because online literature is not the same as traditional literature, it deviates from the "modernity" discourse (human center) in the structural way. The "person" in the novel is polysemous, including "natural person", "kind of person", " "People in groups", "people of God", and "impulses to return to ancestors" often appear. The narrative style is often rich in folk literature and folklore. The third is an expert in communication, media culture, and symbolic economics. Network literature is not the same as popular popular best-selling paper books. It is first spread in a network virtual space with a text symbol, and the entire production and communication process is closely related to capital operations. These three areas of knowledge need to blend and integrate. It is very important to integrate experts and knowledge in these three fields in the professional process of network literature research. Therefore, we can make the research of network literature from fact judgment to value judgment.

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