押庄龙虎

Set Home | Add to Favorites | Contact Us

What is criticism in the information age?

Source: Literary Gazette Published: 2013-09-18 Author: Hong Zhigang

In recent years, literary criticism seems to have fallen into a state of "massage." Opening up some newspapers and magazines, all the articles on the status quo of criticism are full of sarcasm, resentment and reprimand, thinking that literary criticism has already fallen into the "dust", or even "fear"; some writers even bluntly , They will never read certain newspapers anymore, because their published articles criticizing their work are unacceptable. Faced with these embarrassing situations, I have also been thinking: Where is the problem with literary criticism? So that anyone can find a reason, Qi Yuxuan stomping his feet?

Tian Shengyu, He Shengliang?

Literary criticism is so dissatisfied, in my opinion, a big reason is the rapid rush of the information age. I said this, as if there were some "reasonable ass, blame the bench". actually not. According to McLuhan, media is information. The implication is that the more developed the media, the richer the dissemination of information. One of the key reasons why it is called the information age today is that the media has entered the electronic age. The emergence of electronic media is undoubtedly epoch-making. It arrives instantly. It's all pervasive. It can publish massive amounts of information at a low cost. It allows everyone to have their own information publishing platform. Its propagation is a pair of N-type infinite diffusion.

If you think about these characteristics of the electronic media, almost every one of them is very humane, and it fully reflects the strong support of technicalism for humanism. So we are happy. So now we have given many media choices to life. The media said that if there was a problem with milk, we would not drink milk. The media said that the house price would rise and we would be like a needle felt. The media sent various bragging advertisements every day and we would not believe it. When looking for a pair of leather shoes, I still look at the brand and subconsciously recognize the inertia: This brand seems to have been advertised and should be an optional product. This is the medium, which disciplines us in various ways. It is causing an internal change in our lives, namely, the expansion of emotional life and the decline of rational thinking. Many people are reluctant to admit it, but it is the case. More and more people rely on the Internet and TV, and do not like books, because books are static, rational reading carriers, while the Internet and TV are dynamic, constantly refreshed or replaced information carriers. Newspapers are also catering to this trend, with larger and larger headlines, more and more pictures, and less and less text. Between people and the media, a cyclical state of perceptual culture has begun: the media produces a large variety of perceptual information at a glance, the wider its audience; the more people lie on the information bed I don't like rational thinking or detailed written descriptions.

This strange circle directly impacted literary criticism. Because criticism is an art science after all, it needs reasoning, analysis, comparison, and judgment. It is a highly rational and professional art practice, although it also requires artistic intuition. That is to say, the rational magic weapon on which literary criticism relies is incompatible with the media's emotional needs. Just imagine, how many people are willing to read a tens of thousands of comments on the Internet? How many newspapers are willing to publish long, well-analyzed and well-documented commentaries? The reader is impatient, the editor is impatient. When a work is published, when a literary phenomenon appears, the media needs judgment: good or bad. Even if you need some reason, you can only say a few words, and you can't say enough.

Therefore, the literary criticism we usually see in the media is judge-like judgment. Simple, sloppy, eye-catching, spitting blood, but difficult to make people think, let alone convinced. The reason is that, on the one hand, the media is subject to the masses, and they have to cater to the emotional spiritual demands of the masses, and try to avoid rationalized and specialized information; Interpretation is essential.

Facing this dislocation, we can only sigh from the sky: Tian Shengyu, He Shengliang? !!

"Media Criticism" came into being

Facing this conflict between perceptual reality and rational profession, a balanced approach is not without it. Unfortunately, this method is not the critics have the final say, but the media have the final say, because this is the information age, the media is the "boss". In Baudrillard's words: "The medium constitutes a new, huge productive force and follows the dialectics of productive forces." What "dialectics" does this particular productive force follow? According to Bower, it is mainly configured through a variety of hidden information-including "information about editing, dramatizing and misinterpreting the world, information that assigns a message as a commodity, and praises as a symbol "Information", etc., in the seemingly chaotic process, with its "systematic rotation, forcibly created the only mode of acceptance, that is, the consumption mode."

In other words, the role of the media in modern society is to use the constant coding of information to formulate a cultural consumption pattern that symbolizes the rules of self-interest in the process of attracting public acceptance. In this case, the media said that those specialized literary criticisms were voluminous, and few people read them, so it should be changed. Thus, "media criticism" emerged from time to time.

What is "media criticism"? My definition is that it mainly refers to the short and popular literary criticism that appears in modern media such as newspapers, popular magazines, television, and the Internet and is suitable for popular culture. It discards the systemic, logical and constructive nature of traditional literary criticism, emphasizing the immediate and vulgar nature of criticism. Some scholars have also seriously considered it, and even summarized the main characteristics of this criticism into nine types: news, event, random, temporary (non-historical), youth (sub-cultural), sharp Sexual (aggressive, provocative or critical), cathartic, pervasive (popular). Although this induction is not necessarily comprehensive or scientific, it makes sense.

Since "media criticism" is controlled by the media, it must follow the media's consumption philosophy and communication mode. So we see that this kind of criticism almost inevitably shows a tendency to be perceptual and flat. They do not emphasize rational evaluation, nor do they pursue the scientific nature of interpretation, rely more on the subjective feelings of the critics, and complete the process of criticism in a flat description process. This kind of perceptual and flat pursuit, to some extent, reflects the information culture's resistance or dissolution of the traditional rational spirit, and of course, it also subverts the scientific nature of literary criticism based on reason.

Commercialization: A Carnival of Literary Criticism

Information is the media and media is the consumption. In this interlocking logical chain, consumption is the ultimate goal. No matter what kind of media, it is necessary to achieve the survival and development through the extensive consumption of information, which is well known. The media will inevitably consider commercial interests in the information coding process. Of course, publishers see this "special feature" of the media, so they often invest heavily in such "soft advertising". The usual way is to ask critics to write essays that are eye-catching and then focus on launching in the media. Therefore, some people joked that a reading newspaper has become a "selling newspaper".

In response, Xiao Ying said politely: "Media critics read collectively, think collectively, and speak collectively under the unified media regulations. Media critics no longer discover, but instead follow the culture that the media predetermines. Follow up the line; they no longer think, but speak in accordance with a given theme; they no longer judge, but add rhetoric that expresses the style of "personal criticism" to the prescribed judgment. "This statement is a bit extreme, but neither It doesn't make much sense. In fact, there are indeed many literary criticisms that often focus on "carnival-style" focusing on publishers or related interest groups, carefully crafting symbols of cultural consumption, rather than providing all kinds of attractive aesthetic findings. It no longer focuses on the pleasure of criticism itself in aesthetic creation, but only on the commercial effect and benefit harvest of criticism.

The explosive growth of literary works

An important tenet of the information age is: openness, swiftness, equality and freedom. This cultural creed looks humane and modern, but it also has its own limitations. As far as literature is concerned, one of its limitations is to drive literary creation from elite to popularization and pluralism. The aesthetic pursuit of writers has also become complicated and complicated, which has caused literary criticism to make the selection of evaluation objects more difficult. It is not easy to criticize the individual creation and value evaluation of the subject.

In the era of paper media, people mainly used written texts as the object of criticism. On the one hand, the written texts of the paper media era have generally been carefully selected by publishing institutions, and have undergone a more careful review and editing process. To some extent, they have completed an important artistic screening; on the other hand, The static and stable written text also determines that when choosing the target of criticism, people can always maintain an objective and rational thinking, so that they can be more comprehensive and scientific in the process of selecting the object of criticism. Therefore, in this historical environment, critics have a relatively centralized and controllable range of choices for criticizing objects, and they can calmly give play to the comprehensive and objective rational spirit and overall vision of the subject of criticism.

In the information age, people are faced not only with static written text, but also with a large amount of dynamic online text. In particular, the emergence of Internet literature makes it more difficult for the subject of criticism to effectively choose the object of criticism. It can be said that it is almost impossible for any critic to grasp the overall pattern of literary development today.

Entertainment to Death: Symptoms of Information Culture

In the book "Entertainment to the Dead", American scholar Neil Bozeman once pointed out that the main function of modern media is entertainment. Entertainment rules everything. In the face of the principle of entertainment or enjoyment, people have become an increasingly superficial, impetuous consumerist. Not only have they lost their ability to consume autonomy and critical appreciation, but they also easily lose the shame rooted in the deepest layers of civilization. The extreme industrial consciousness and business philosophy of media operators have opened up a relatively broad living space for the entertainment industry and greatly promoted the prosperity and prosperity of the entertainment industry. The information industry and entertainment industry constitute a huge industrial chain, tightly using and squeezing people's spare time, including college students.

So Bozeman reluctantly said: "This is a city of entertainment, where all public discourse is increasingly appearing in the form of entertainment and becoming a cultural spirit. Our politics, religion, journalism, sports, education and business Are willing to become a vassal of entertainment, no complaints, even silence, and the result is that we become a species of entertainment to death. "According to Bozeman, the key factor causing this result is the modern media," Without the technology to advertise them, people cannot understand how to incorporate all of this into their daily lives. " In other words, it is the modern media, with its strong penetration of reality, that makes the entertainment fire spread by a large area in human daily life.

People need entertainment, so the media will be the pioneers and standard bearers of entertainment. Recreating all serious and rational things is also an important cultural phenomenon in the information age. This pursuit of entertainment not only makes literary writing become gamified and entertaining, but also makes literary criticism show a very prominent feature of popularization and entertainment: it not only caters to the entertainment needs of the broad audience, but also achieves self-relieving. Aesthetic experience. It has led to the subject of criticism becoming more and more extreme, paying more attention to noise, and pursuing the so-called "star-like" effect of stardom.

What is criticism?

I affirm once again that I am not a conservative and I have always welcomed the information age, although I also understand that no matter who welcomes it or not, it must be accepted. Indeed, from an objective point of view, the information age is having an essential impact on our lives-from lifestyles, survival concepts, interpersonal ethics to thinking modes, there will inevitably be profound changes. It ’s just that most of us are in the midst of this huge change and are greedily enjoying the many conveniences it brings. We have yet to deeply understand the consequences of this change, let alone that it will affect some humanities. What impact does science have.

Literary criticism is criticized, of course, for other reasons, such as increasingly complex interpersonal relationships and the professionalism of critics, but the underlying discipline of information culture is an important factor. This is because it not only intentionally or unintentionally compresses the space of human rational thinking while showing the human perceptual life. From the development of Western culture, there is its own logic in it. After all, hundreds of years of enlightenment have made them into the trap of "instrumental rationality" and become "one-dimensional people." The meaning of center, anti-rationality, and remodeling of sensuous life for life is indeed beyond reproach.

The problem is that our enlightenment is intermittent and far from complete, and we have also sought after the postmodern, anti-center, and anti-rational. There are some problems, and it is also funny. As a result, there are many mobs in our network; anti-intellectualism is common; everyone revels when they entertain, and indulge when they revel, and the moral bottom line is easily trampled. What is criticism in this cultural environment? My idea is to return criticism to its rational trajectory and back to the professional academic space. Criticism is criticism. It is a mental confrontation between critics and critics. It is a discourse exchange for professional readers. There is no need to stand by the media all day and even embrace and kiss.

Address: Hubei Writers Association, No. 1 Cuiliu Street, Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province Tel: 027-68880616 027-68880679
Copyright @ Hubei Writer's Network. All Rights Reserved. E ICP No. 09015726 hiwui.cn
Technical Support: Hubei Daily

What is criticism in the information age?

2013-09-18 00-00-00

In recent years, literary criticism seems to have fallen into a state of "massage." Opening up some newspapers and magazines, all the articles on the status quo of criticism are full of sarcasm, resentment and reprimand, thinking that literary criticism has already fallen into the "dust", or even "fear"; some writers even bluntly say , They will never read certain newspapers anymore, because their published articles criticizing their work are unacceptable. Faced with these embarrassing situations, I have also been thinking: Where is the problem with literary criticism? So that anyone can find a reason, Qi Yuxuan stomping his feet?

Tian Shengyu, He Shengliang?

Literary criticism is so dissatisfied, in my opinion, a big reason is the rapid rush of the information age. I said this, as if there were some "reasonable ass, blame the bench". actually not. According to McLuhan, media is information. The implication is that the more developed the media, the richer the dissemination of information. One of the key reasons why it is called the information age today is that the media has entered the electronic age. The emergence of electronic media is undoubtedly epoch-making. It arrives instantly. It's all pervasive. It can publish massive amounts of information at a low cost. It allows everyone to have their own information publishing platform. Its propagation is a pair of N-type infinite diffusion.

If you think about these characteristics of the electronic media, almost every one of them is very humane, and it fully reflects the strong support of technicalism for humanism. So we are happy. So now we have given many media choices to life. The media said that if there was a problem with milk, we would not drink milk. The media said that the house price would rise and we would be like a needle felt. The media sent various bragging advertisements every day and we would not believe it. But when we bought a bottle of shampoo or When looking for a pair of leather shoes, I still look at the brand and subconsciously recognize the inertia: This brand seems to have been advertised and should be an optional product. This is the medium, which disciplines us in various ways. It is causing an internal change in our lives, namely, the expansion of emotional life and the decline of rational thinking. Many people are reluctant to admit it, but it is the case. More and more people rely on the Internet and TV, and do not like books, because books are static, rational reading carriers, while the Internet and TV are dynamic, constantly refreshed or replaced information carriers. Newspapers are also catering to this trend, with larger and larger headlines, more and more pictures, and less and less text. Between people and the media, a cyclical state of perceptual culture has begun: the media produces a large variety of perceptual information at a glance, the wider its audience; the more people lie on the information bed I don't like rational thinking or detailed written descriptions.

This strange circle directly impacted literary criticism. Because criticism is an art science after all, it needs reasoning, analysis, comparison, and judgment. It is a highly rational and professional art practice, although it also requires artistic intuition. That is to say, the rational magic weapon on which literary criticism relies is incompatible with the media's emotional needs. Just imagine, how many people are willing to read a tens of thousands of comments on the Internet? How many newspapers are willing to publish long, well-analyzed and well-documented commentaries? The reader is impatient, the editor is impatient. When a work is published, when a literary phenomenon appears, the media needs judgment: good or bad. Even if you need some reason, you can only say a few words, and you can't say enough.

Therefore, the literary criticism we usually see in the media is judge-like judgment. Simple, sloppy, eye-catching, spitting blood, but difficult to make people think, let alone convinced. The reason is that, on the one hand, the media is subject to the masses, and they have to cater to the emotional spiritual demands of the masses, and try to avoid the rationalized and specialized information; Interpretation is essential.

Facing this dislocation, we can only sigh from the sky: Tian Shengyu, He Shengliang? !!

"Media Criticism" came into being

Facing this conflict between perceptual reality and rational profession, a balanced approach is not without it. Unfortunately, this method is not the critics have the final say, but the media have the final say, because this is the information age, the media is the "boss". In Baudrillard's words: "The medium constitutes a new, huge productive force and follows the dialectics of productive forces." What "dialectics" does this particular productive force follow? According to Bower, it is mainly configured through a variety of hidden information-including "information about editing, dramatizing and misinterpreting the world, information that assigns a message as a commodity, and praises as a symbol "Information", etc., in the seemingly chaotic process, with its "systematic rotation, forcibly created the only mode of acceptance, that is, the consumption mode."

In other words, the role of the media in modern society is to use the constant coding of information to formulate a cultural consumption pattern that symbolizes the rules of self-interest in the process of attracting public acceptance. In this case, the media said that those specialized literary criticisms were voluminous, and few people read them, so it should be changed. Thus, "media criticism" emerged from time to time.

What is "media criticism"? My definition is that it mainly refers to the short and popular literary criticism that appears in modern media such as newspapers, popular magazines, television, and the Internet and is suitable for popular culture. It discards the systemic, logical and constructive nature of traditional literary criticism, emphasizing the immediate and vulgar nature of criticism. Some scholars have also seriously considered it, and even summarized the main characteristics of this criticism into nine types: news, event, random, temporary (non-historical), youth (sub-cultural), sharp Sexual (aggressive, provocative or critical), cathartic, pervasive (popular). Although this induction is not necessarily comprehensive or scientific, it makes sense.

Since "media criticism" is controlled by the media, it must follow the media's consumption philosophy and communication mode. So we see that this kind of criticism almost inevitably shows a tendency to be perceptual and flat. They do not emphasize rational evaluation, nor do they pursue the scientific nature of interpretation, rely more on the subjective feelings of the critics, and complete the process of criticism in a flat description process. This kind of perceptual and flat pursuit, to some extent, reflects the information culture's resistance or dissolution of the traditional rational spirit, and of course, it also subverts the scientific nature of literary criticism based on reason.

Commercialization: A Carnival of Literary Criticism

Information is the media and media is the consumption. In this interlocking logical chain, consumption is the ultimate goal. No matter what kind of media, it is necessary to achieve the survival and development through the extensive consumption of information, which is well known. The media will inevitably consider commercial interests in the information coding process. Of course, publishers see this "special feature" of the media, so they often invest heavily in such "soft advertising". The usual way is to ask critics to write essays that are eye-catching and then focus on launching in the media. Therefore, some people joked that a reading newspaper has become a "selling newspaper".

In response, Xiao Ying said politely: "Media critics read collectively, think collectively, and speak collectively under the unified media regulations. Media critics no longer discover, but instead follow the culture that the media predetermines. Follow up the line; they no longer think, but speak in accordance with a given theme; they no longer judge, but add rhetoric that expresses the style of "personal criticism" to the prescribed judgment. "This statement is a bit extreme, but neither It doesn't make much sense. In fact, there are indeed many literary criticisms that often focus on "carnival-style" focusing on publishers or related interest groups, carefully crafting symbols of cultural consumption, rather than providing all kinds of attractive aesthetic findings. It no longer focuses on the pleasure of criticism itself in aesthetic creation, but only on the commercial effect and benefit harvest of criticism.

The explosive growth of literary works

An important tenet of the information age is: openness, swiftness, equality and freedom. This cultural creed looks humane and modern, but it also has its own limitations. As far as literature is concerned, one of its limitations is to drive literary creation from elite to popularization and pluralism. The aesthetic pursuit of writers has also become complicated and complicated, which has caused literary criticism to make the selection of evaluation objects more difficult. It is not easy to criticize the individual creation and value evaluation of the subject.

In the era of paper media, people mainly used written texts as the object of criticism. On the one hand, the written texts of the paper media era have generally been carefully selected by publishing institutions, and have undergone a more careful review and editing process. To some extent, they have completed an important artistic screening; on the other hand, The static and stable written text also determines that when choosing the target of criticism, people can always maintain an objective and rational thinking, so that they can be more comprehensive and scientific in the process of selecting the object of criticism. Therefore, in this historical environment, critics have a relatively centralized and controllable range of choices for criticizing objects, and they can calmly give play to the comprehensive and objective rational spirit and overall vision of the subject of criticism.

In the information age, people are faced not only with static written text, but also with a large amount of dynamic online text. In particular, the emergence of Internet literature makes it more difficult for the subject of criticism to effectively choose the object of criticism. It can be said that it is almost impossible for any critic to grasp the overall pattern of literary development today.

Entertainment to Death: Symptoms of Information Culture

In the book "Entertainment to the Dead", American scholar Neil Bozeman once pointed out that the main function of modern media is entertainment. Entertainment rules everything. In the face of the principle of entertainment or enjoyment, people have become an increasingly superficial, impetuous consumerist. Not only have they lost their ability to consume autonomy and critical appreciation, but they also easily lose the shame rooted in the deepest layers of civilization. The extreme industrial consciousness and business philosophy of media operators have opened up a relatively broad living space for the entertainment industry and greatly promoted the prosperity and prosperity of the entertainment industry. The information industry and entertainment industry constitute a huge industrial chain, tightly using and squeezing people's spare time, including college students.

So Bozeman reluctantly said: "This is a city of entertainment, where all public discourse is increasingly appearing in the form of entertainment and becoming a cultural spirit. Our politics, religion, journalism, sports, education and business Are willing to become a vassal of entertainment, no complaints, even silence, and the result is that we become a species of entertainment to death. "According to Bozeman, the key factor causing this result is the modern media," Without the technology to advertise them, people cannot understand how to incorporate all of this into their daily lives. " In other words, it is the modern media, with its strong penetration of reality, that makes the entertainment fire spread by a large area in human daily life.

People need entertainment, so the media will be the pioneers and standard bearers of entertainment. Recreating all serious and rational things is also an important cultural phenomenon in the information age. This pursuit of entertainment not only makes literary writing become gamified and entertaining, but also makes literary criticism show a very prominent feature of popularization and entertainment: it not only caters to the entertainment needs of the broad audience, but also achieves self-relieving Aesthetic experience. It has led to the subject of criticism becoming more and more extreme, paying more attention to noise, and pursuing the so-called "star-like" effect of stardom.

What is criticism?

I affirm once again that I am not a conservative and I have always welcomed the information age, although I also understand that no matter who welcomes it or not, it must be accepted. Indeed, from an objective point of view, the information age is having an essential impact on our lives-from lifestyles, survival concepts, interpersonal ethics to thinking modes, there will inevitably be profound changes. It ’s just that most of us are in the midst of this huge change and are greedily enjoying the many conveniences it brings. We have yet to deeply understand the consequences of this change, let alone that it will affect some humanities. What impact does science have.

Literary criticism is criticized, of course, for other reasons, such as increasingly complex interpersonal relationships and the professionalism of critics, but the underlying discipline of information culture is an important factor. This is because it not only intentionally or unintentionally compresses the space of human rational thinking while showing the human perceptual life. From the development of Western culture, there is its own logic in it. After all, hundreds of years of enlightenment have made them into the trap of "instrumental rationality" and become "one-dimensional people." The meaning of center, anti-rationality, and remodeling of sensuous life for life is indeed beyond reproach.

The problem is that our enlightenment is intermittent and far from complete, and we have also sought after the postmodern, anti-center, and anti-rational. There are some problems, and it is also funny. As a result, there are many mobs in our network; anti-intellectualism is common; everyone revels when they entertain, and indulge when they revel, and the moral bottom line is easily trampled. What is criticism in this cultural environment? My idea is to return criticism to its rational trajectory and back to the professional academic space. Criticism is criticism. It is a mental confrontation between critics and critics. It is a discourse exchange for professional readers. There is no need to stand by the media all day and even embrace and kiss.

Notice announcement dynamic information city and state Wenxun work research book review preface and post new book stand special column Hubei writing association
Copynight @ 湖北 电影 网 All Right Reserved
Technical Support: Hubei Daily